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Discovering knowledge from data is a quantum jump from quantity to quality, which is the characteristic and the spirit of the development of science. Symbolic regression (SR) is playing a greater role in the discovery of knowledge from data, specifically in this era of exponential data growth, because SRs are able to discover mathematical formulas from data. These formulas may provide scientifically meaningful models, especially when combined with domain knowledge. This article provides an overview of SR applications in the field of materials science and engineering. Integrating domain knowledge with SR is the key and a crucial approach, which allows gaining knowledge from data quickly, accurately, and scientifically. In the data-driven paradigm, SR allows for uncovering the underlying mechanisms of materials behavior, properties, and functions, in a wide range of areas from basic academic research to industrial applications, including experiments and computations, by providing explicit interpretable models from data, in comparison with other machine-learning “black-box” models. SR will be a powerful tool for rational and automatic materials development.
The very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is a development of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) and one of the six proposed Generation IV reactor concept candidates. The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10) is the first pebble-bed gas-cooled test reactor in China. A sampling system for the measurement of carbon-14 (14C) was established in the helium purification system of the HTR-10 primary loop, which could sample 14C from the coolant at three locations. The results showed that activity concentration of 14C in the HTR-10 primary coolant was 1.2(1) × 102 Bq/m3 (STP). The production mechanisms, distribution characteristics, reduction routes, and release types of 14C in HTR-10 were analyzed and discussed. A theoretical model was built to calculate the amount of 14C in the core of HTR-10 and its concentration in the primary coolant. The activation reaction of 13C has been identified to be the dominant 14C source in the core, whereas in the primary coolant, it is the activation of 14N. These results can supplement important information for the source term analysis of 14C in HTR-10 and promote the study of 14C in HTGRs.
This paper is concerned with the global dynamics and spreading speeds of a partially degenerate non-local dispersal system with monostable nonlinearity in periodic habitats. We first obtain the existence of the principal eigenvalue for a periodic eigenvalue problem with partially degenerate non-local dispersal. Then we study the coexistence and extinction dynamics. Finally, the existence and characterization of spreading speeds are considered. In particular, we show that the spreading speed is linearly determinate. Overall, we extend the existing results on global dynamics and spreading speeds for the degenerate reaction–diffusion system to the degenerate non-local dispersal case. The extension is non-trivial and meaningful.
This study aims to investigate the climate–malaria associations in nine cities selected from malaria high-risk areas in China. Daily reports of malaria cases in Anhui, Henan, and Yunnan Provinces for 2005–2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to quantify the city-specific climate–malaria associations. Multivariate random-effects meta-regression analyses were used to pool the city-specific effects. An inverted-U-shaped curve relationship was observed between temperatures, average relative humidity, and malaria. A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature (Tmax) resulted in 6·7% (95% CI 4·6–8·8%) to 15·8% (95% CI 14·1–17·4%) increase of malaria, with corresponding lags ranging from 7 to 45 days. For minimum temperature (Tmin), the effect estimates peaked at lag 0 to 40 days, ranging from 5·3% (95% CI 4·4–6·2%) to 17·9% (95% CI 15·6–20·1%). Malaria is more sensitive to Tmin in cool climates and Tmax in warm climates. The duration of lag effect in a cool climate zone is longer than that in a warm climate zone. Lagged effects did not vanish after an epidemic season but waned gradually in the following 2–3 warm seasons. A warming climate may potentially increase the risk of malaria resurgence in China.
A thin-film field-effect transistor (TFT) is a three-terminal device comprising source, drain, and gate electrodes, a dielectric layer, a semiconductor layer, and a substrate. The TFT is a fundamental building component in a variety of electronic devices. Developing an intrinsically stretchable TFT entails availability and usage of a functional material with elastomeric deformability in response to an externally applied stress. This represents a major materials challenge. In this article, we survey strategies to synthesize these elastomeric functional materials, and how these materials are assembled to fabricate intrinsically stretchable TFT devices. Developing solution-based printing technology to assemble intrinsically stretchable TFTs is considered a prospective strategy for wearable electronics for industrial adaptation in the near future.
We present results of a regional comparative study of surface mass changes from 2004 to 2008 based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and CHINARE observations over the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf system (LAS). Estimation of the ICESat mass change rates benefitted from the density measurements along the CHINARE traverse and a spatial density adjustment method for reducing the effect of spatial density variations. In the high-elevation inland region, a positive trend was estimated from both ICESat and GRACE data, which is in line with the CHINARE accumulation measurements. In the coastal region, there were areas with high level accumulations in both ICESat and GRACE trend maps. In many high flow-speed glacier areas, negative mass change rates may be caused by dynamic ice flow discharges that have surpassed the snow accumulation. Overall, the mass change rate estimate in the LAS of 2004–2008 from the GRACE, ICESat and CHINARE data is 5.41 ± 4.59 Gt a−1, indicating a balanced to slightly positive mass trend. Along with other published results, this suggests that a longer-term positive mass trend in the LAS may have slowed in recent years.
Coronary fistula is defined as an anomalous connection between a coronary artery and any of the four chambers of the heart or any of its great vessels. A coronary fistula connecting the left main coronary artery to the right atrium is the most uncommon. In the present study, we report the surgical management of a very uncommon case of an aneurysm-like fistula connecting the left main coronary artery to the right atrium in a 2-year-old boy.
The transverse navigation system has been designed and developed to solve the challenges of navigation in polar regions. However, considerable theoretical errors are introduced into the system when the spherical Earth model is adopted. To tackle this problem, a transverse navigation mechanism under the ellipsoidal Earth model has been proposed in this research and the application regions of the proposed algorithm are specified and evaluated through error analysis. The analysis shows the presented transverse navigation system works in both polar and part of the non-polar regions. Field tests were conducted to evaluate the navigation performance in Nanjing, a non-polar region. A novel experimental method, where the field test data in mid-latitude areas was used to simulate the real Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data and the reference information in polar regions, was adopted to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm in polar areas. The results show: that in the mid-latitude areas, the presented transverse navigation system achieves the same accuracy as the traditional inertial navigation system and that in polar regions, the proposed transverse mechanism outperforms the traditional method with a much lower error in longitude and yaw.
Glacier surface melting can be described using energy-balance models. We conducted a surface energy budget experiment to quantify surface energy fluxes and to identify factors affecting glacial melt in the ablation zone of Laohugou glacier No. 12, western Qilian mountains. The surface energy budget was calculated based on data from an automatic weather station, and turbulent fluxes calculated using the bulk-aerodynamic approach were corrected using measurements from an eddy-covariance system. Simulated mass balances were validated by stake observations. Net shortwave radiation was the primary component of the surface energy balance (126Wm–2), followed by sensible heat flux. Net longwave radiation (–45Wm–2) and latent heat flux (–12.8 Wm–2) represented heat sinks. The bulk-aerodynamic method underestimated sensible and latent heat fluxes by 3.4 and 1.2 W m–2, respectively. The simulated total mass balance of –1703mmw.e. exceeded the observed total by 90 mm w.e. Daily positive accumulated temperature and low albedo were the main factors accelerating glacier melt. An uncertainty assessment showed that mass balance was very sensitive to albedo and varied by 36% when albedo changed by 0.1.
In this paper, we focus on the unknown environments without artificial landmarks and features, such as disaster situations and polar regions. An approach to active exploration based on an on-line scheme for autonomous allocation of landmarks is proposed. Specifically, the robot carries along with itself some landmarks which are to be allocated during the exploration according to some heuristic rules. The utility of landmark allocation is analyzed and calculated. Then the active exploration is converted into a problem of multi-objective optimization. The objective function includes three weighted terms: the accuracy of localization and mapping, the coverage rate of the unknown environment and the utility of the allocated landmarks. By solving this optimization problem, control inputs of the robot are computed to guarantee that accurate localization, high-quality mapping and complete exploration can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, supplementation and redundancy elimination of the allocated landmarks are executed to make a complete and non-redundant coverage for the environment. Finally, some landmarks, together with a device for allocating these landmarks, are developed. Both experiment and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Imaging of latex particles, especially those with low glass transition temperature (Tg) has been a challenging issue. Different sample preparation methods for characterization of the morphology of a poly(n-butyl acrylate)/polystyrene two-phase latex are discussed and compared in this study. A method via hydroxyethyl cellulose embedding combined with ruthenium tetraoxide (RuO4) staining for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) observation is developed. By using this method, the spherical shape of latex particles can be maintained without deformation. The degree of incorporation of RuO4 into latex particles and cellulose matrix is different, which makes latex particles readily identifiable from cellulose matrix under STEM. A series of latexes with different structures such as copolymer latex and organic-inorganic hybrid latex were also successfully investigated by this method. The results indicate this specimen preparation method can be applied to study the morphology of a wide range of latex systems.
Bismuth ferrites crystallites were synthesized by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the pure phase of Bi25FeO40, BiFeO3 and Bi2Fe4O9 were synthesized with initial Bi/Fe ratio of 1:1 at the temperature of 200°C for 24 h, using NaOH concentration of 2, 5 and 10 M, respectively. With addition of PVA, the individual Bi-Fe oxides could be existed in a more wide range of processing parameters. The phase evolution of bismuth ferrites in the process of hydrothermal reactions was discussed. Moreover, photocatalytic properties of the bismuth ferrites crystallites were explored. The results showed that they possessed band gaps of about 2.0 eV and performed good degradation effect at visible light region.
Knowledge of present-day ice temperature and velocity is important in order to determine how fast a glacier will respond to present and future climate change. We apply a two-dimensional higher-order thermomechanical flowband model to simulate present-day ice temperature and velocity along the main flowline of East Rongbuk Glacier, Qomolangma (Mount Everest), Himalaya. We use recent (2005–11) observational data to validate the numerical model. Modelled and observed ice surface velocities exhibit good agreement. Modelled ice temperatures agree well with observed values in two shallow boreholes that are ∼18 m deep. The model suggests that the ablation zone of East Rongbuk Glacier, km 4 to km 10 from the glacier head, is underlain by temperate ice.
It is well known that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays pivotal roles in various mitotic events, but its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that no specific JNK2 signal was detected in germinal vesicle stage. JNK2 was associated with the spindles especially the spindle poles and cytoplasmic microtubule organizing centers at prometaphase I, metaphase I, and metaphase II stages. JNK2 became diffusely distributed and associated with the midbody at telophase I stage. Injection of myc-tagged JNK2α1 mRNA into oocytes also revealed its localization on spindle poles. The association of JNK2 with spindle poles was further confirmed by colocalization with the centrosomal proteins, γ-tubulin and Plk1. Nocodazole treatment showed that JNK2 may interact with Plk1 to regulate the spindle assembly. Then we investigated the possible function of JNK2 by JNK2 antibody microinjection and JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 treatment. These two manipulations caused abnormal spindle formation and decreased the rate of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. In addition, inhibition of JNK2 resulted in impaired localization of Plk1. Taken together, our results suggest that JNK2 plays an important role in spindle assembly and PB1 extrusion during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
The influence of high magnetic field on nitriding behavior was investigated in a mixture of NH3 and H2. It was found that high magnetic field could shift the equilibrium of nitriding reaction; this proved that the critical nitrogen potential to form γ′-Fe4N and ε-Fe3N phase was evidently enhanced compared with conventional nitriding. This research provides a new approach for a selective nitriding process.
ZnO thin films are of interest for an array of applications, including: light emitters, photovoltaics, sensors and transparent contacts, among others. Production routes for ZnO include sputtering, MBE and MOCVD. This paper focuses on our efforts to produce a large scale MOCVD thin film production tool and the results obtained from the reactor. Specifically, we have constructed a tool with a 16” wafer carrier that uniformly deposits ZnO films on 38×2” wafers simultaneously. The reactor operates at low pressure (<0.1 Atmosphere) and through 700°C. High quality, uniform films have been deposited on an array of substrates. Al-doped films exhibited resisitivities in the 1×10-3 ohm-cm range and transmissivity greater than 80%. Film morphology and crystallinity are a function of process parameters. The large area oxide MOCVD reactor design challenges and results are summarized. Tool performance and ZnO thin film quality are reviewed, as well as preliminary ZnO contact performance on GaN LEDs.
Interferon, an important cytokine, is an immunomodulator and possesses antiviral and anti-tumour activity. In vitro, it can be administrated in the treatment of diseases alone or with genetically engineered vaccine to enhance the immune effect of the latter. The recombinant transferring vector pSY681–ChIFN-γ was obtained in this study by inserting the chicken type II interferon (ChIFN-γ) gene into the Fowlpox virus (FPV) transferring vector pSY681. The resulting plasmid was then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures pre-infected with the parental FPV S-FPV-017. Finally, the recombinant Fowlpox virus (rFPV) expressing ChIFN-γ (rFPV–ChIFN-γ) was produced by homologous recombination with the FPV gene in CEF. rFPV-positive plaques were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assays. The rFPV–ChIFN-γ supernatants, cultured in CEF for 72 h and inoculated into rat fibroblasts (L929), had an inhibitory effect on the replication of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) with an antiviral titre of 2048 U/ml.
The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate ion transport in an Ar plasma electrode sheath with a non-uniform dust. Charge exchange and elastic collisions between ions and neutral atoms and also the collection and Coulomb scattering of ions on the dust particles are examined during the motion of ions in the sheath. In order to study the effect of the non-uniform dust density and size on ion transport, we choose an exponent dust density distribution with a uniform dust size and a normal dust radius distribution with a uniform density and compare the simulation results with those for a uniform dust. It is found that both a non-uniform and a uniform dust density affect the ion density arriving at the electrode significantly and to the same degree. At the same time, it is also found that a non-uniform and uniform dust size influence the ion density arriving at the electrode greatly, but with a slight difference. Therefore, although the dust content is very low in most processing plasmas, its influence becomes evident whether its content is uniform or non-uniform in content and size. So, we can come to the conclusion that the key factors affecting the influence of dust particles on plasma behaviour are the linear density and the average radius of dust particles rather than their distribution.
A pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations is studied and asymptotic properties of its non-oscillatory solutions are obtained. In particular, we provide classification schemes for these solutions which are justified by existence criteria.