A prospective epidemiological study was carried out over 1 year to evaluate vitamin B complex dietary intake and status in Cuba, 2 years after the Cuban neuropathy epidemic of 1993. Of the 199 healthy middle-aged men selected, 141 completed the study. Volunteers were followed up every 3 months for 1 year. Dietary intake and status of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 were assessed each time. The dietary intake of vitamin B complex was low, particularly in June and July (folate), and October (thiamin). A deficient status was observed for vitamin B complex, except for vitamin B6. Vitamin B complex intake and status varied over the year. However, dietary intake and status were poorly related. The results prove that healthy Cuban men represent a vulnerable population in terms of vitamin B complex status and stress the necessity to both promote preventive multivitamin supplementation and produce local food rich in vitamin B complex.