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This article analyses monodic reperformance of epinicians in the fifth century BC and argues that the musical and ethical dimensions of such performances were mutually reinforcing. Reperformances by solo singers would have strongly foregrounded the agency of the individual performer, while also enacting his understanding of musical conventions. This relationship forms a structural parallel with the function of ethical statements in epinicians, which are usually conventional in terms of their conceptual content and yet also emphasize the agency of individuals in responding to them. I argue that the parallelism between ethics and monodic reperformance is an important thematic strand in Nemean 4 and Isthmian 2, and prefigures the responses that the poems elicit from audiences.
At Iliad 13.751-3, Hector heeds Polydamas' advice to rally the Trojans by gathering their best fighters together and debating their next move (13.736-47). The speech is followed by a simile that has puzzled some commentators, in which Hector is compared to a snowy mountain as he moves through the Trojan ranks. The passage runs as follows:
‘Πουλυδάμα σὺ μὲν αὐτοῦ ἐρύκακε πάντας ἀρίστους,
αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ κεῖσ’ εἶμι καὶ ἀντιόω πολέμοιο·
αἶψα δ’ ἐλεύσομαι αὖτις ἐπὴν εὖ τοῖς ἐπιτείλω.’
ἦ ῥα, καὶ ὁρμήθη ὄρεϊ νιφόεντι ἐοικὼς
κεκλήγων, διὰ δὲ Τρώων πέτετ’ ἠδ’ ἐπικούρων. 755
οἳ δ’ ἐς Πανθοΐδην ἀγαπήνορα Πουλυδάμαντα
πάντες ἐπεσσεύοντ’, ἐπεὶ Ἕκτορος ἔκλυον αὐδήν.
‘Polydamas, hold all the best men here, while I go there and face the battle. I shall swiftly come back again, when I have given my orders to the men.’ He spoke and rushed off appearing like a snowy mountain, crying out, and flew through the ranks of the Trojans and their allies, and they all rushed to the kindly-minded Polydamas, Panthoos’ son, when they heard Hector's voice.
This paper argues that the final couplet of Horace, Epode 13 alludes both to the description of Achilles playing the lyre in Iliad 9 and to ancient scholarly debate about the Homeric passage. Horace's reworking of the Iliad underlines his transfer of epic material to a sympotic setting, and the scholarly allusion reinforces Horace's presentation of himself as a symposiastic speaker by drawing on the tradition of symposia as sites of learned conversation. This dual engagement with Homer encourages readers to see their own responses to Horace's poem as part of a continuum of literary debate.
The importance of music for epinician, as for all other types of choral performance in Archaic and Classical Greece, has long been recognized, but the exiguousness of the evidence for the compositional principles behind such music, and for what these poems actually sounded like in performance, has limited scholarly enquiries. Examination of Pindar's texts themselves for evidence of his musical practices was for a long time dominated by extensive and often inconclusive debate about the relations between metres and modes. More recently scholars have begun to explore Pindar's relations to contemporary developments in musical performance, and in doing so have opened up new questions about how music affected audiences as aesthetically and culturally significant in its own right, and how it interacted with the language of the text. This article will investigate the performance scenarios of two of Pindar's epinicians, arguing that in each case the poems contain indications of specific musical accompaniments, and use these scenarios as a starting point for engaging with wider interpretative questions. The self-referential dimension of these compositions will be of particular importance; I shall argue that Pindar deployed a type of musical intertextuality, in which his compositions draw on pre-existing melodic structures, utilizing their cultural associations for the purposes of his own pieces, a process crucial to the dynamics of performance of the poems concerned. By doing so I shall attempt to reach a better understanding of the roles played by music in epinician performance and of Pindar's place in relation to the musical culture in which he worked.
This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14C bomb peak, 210Pb, 137Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, there is a clear discrepancy between the 14C bomb peak and 210Pb age estimates. In the upper layers of the profiles, the age estimates of 14C and 210Pb are in agreement. However, with increasing depth, the difference between the age estimates appears to become progressively greater. The evidence from the sites featured in the study suggests that, provided aboveground plant material (seeds, leaves) is selected for dating, the 14C bomb peak is a reliable dating method, and is not significantly affected by the incorporation of old carbon with low 14C content originating from sources including air pollution deposition or methane produced by peat decomposition. 210Pb age estimates that are too old may be explained by the enrichment of 210Pb activity in the surface layers of peat resulting from a hypothesized mechanism where rapidly infilling hollows, rich in binding sites, may scavenge 210Pb associated with dissolved organic matter passing through the hollow, as part of the surface drainage network. Until further research identifies and resolves the cause of the inaccuracy in 210Pb dating, age estimates of peat samples based only on 210Pb should be used with caution.
Renewed in-depth multi-disciplinary investigation of a large coastal mound settlement in Peru has extended the occupation back more than 7000 years to a first human exploitation ~13720 BP. Research by the authors has chronicled the prehistoric sequence from the activities of the first maritime foragers to the construction of the black mound and the introduction of horticulture and monumentality. The community of Huaca Prieta emerges as innovative, complex and ritualised, as yet with no antecedents.
Changes in the geological interpretation of the history of the ancient Solent river basin have focused attention on the handaxes discovered in the Corfe Mullen area during quarrying before the Second World War. Recent geological research suggests that the fluvial terrace the handaxes are associated with may pre-date the Anglian glaciation. This is important because it contributes to the question of just when the Solent basin was first occupied by hominins, and how this relates to other areas of possible contemporary pre-Anglian occupation such as the Boxgrove Marine embayment. However, the artefacts were believed to come from the bluff of the river terrace and were thus not in situ. This paper explores that question and re-examines the context from which the handaxes at Corfe Mullen were discovered.
A total of sixty surgically castrated male pigs (Large White × Landrace) weighing 31·2 (sd 4·3) kg were used in a randomised block experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The pigs were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 weeks before each pig was challenged orally four times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Increasing dietary levels of inulin linearly (P = 0·001) reduced the risk of pigs developing SD; however, eight out of fifteen pigs fed the diet with 80 g/kg inulin still developed the disease. The pH values in the caecum (P = 0·072) tended to decrease, and in the upper colon, the pH values did decrease (P = 0·047) linearly with increasing inulin levels in the diets, most probably due to a linear increase in the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the caecum (P = 0·018), upper colon (P = 0·001) and lower colon (P = 0·013). In addition, there was a linear reduction in the proportion of the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the caecum (P = 0·015 and 0·026) and upper colon (P = 0·011 and 0·013) with increasing levels of dietary inulin. In conclusion, the present study showed that a diet supplemented with a high level of inulin (80 g/kg) but not lower levels reduced the risk of pigs developing SD, possibly acting through a modification of the microbial fermentation patterns in the large intestine.
To study the demographic and clinical parameters of three different categories of obesity, with particular focus on a cohort of individuals with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2, the fastest growing category of obesity.
Over 700 obese individuals were studied (186 with BMI = 30–39 kg/m2, 316 with BMI = 40–49 kg/m2 and 290 with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2).
Median BMI was 51 kg/m2 for patients who reported onset of overweight before 15 years of age, 47 kg/m2 for patients who reported onset between 15 and 30 years, and 42 kg/m2 for patients who became overweight after 30 years of age. The BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 group was notably younger than the group with BMI = 30–39 kg/m2 (44 (sd 11) years v. 50 (sd 15) years; P < 0·0001). Eighteen per cent of obese patients studied were considered metabolically healthy according to standard cut-off points for blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles. However, the proportion of metabolically healthy individuals was significantly higher in the BMI = 30–39 kg/m2 group than in the BMI = 40–49 kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 groups (31 % v. 17 % and 12 % respectively; P < 0·05 and P < 0·005). When compared with people of similar age in the general population, individuals with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 had lower rates of marriage (51 % v. 72 %) and a higher prevalence of unemployment (14 % v. 5 %).
The current study suggests that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide will lead to many more individuals achieving a higher BMI at a younger age. Furthermore, an earlier onset of overweight does not appear to prevent the adverse metabolic health outcomes associated with extreme obesity.
The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (www.bestpracticeperfusion.org) is a collaborative partnership of societies of perfusionists, professional medical societies, and interested clinicians, whose aim is to promote the continuous improvement of the delivery of care and outcomes for patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. Despite the many advances made throughout the history of cardiopulmonary bypass, significant variation in practice and potential for complication remains. To help address this issue, the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion has joined the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to develop a list of complications in congenital cardiac surgery related to extracorporeal circulation conducted via cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mechanical circulatory support devices, which include ventricular assist devices and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Understanding and defining the complications that may occur related to extracorporeal circulation in congenital patients is requisite for assessing and subsequently improving the care provided to the patients we serve. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and define the myriad of complications directly related to the extracorporeal circulation of congenital patients.
Phillip Irvine, Operations Director of Bartter Enterprises (Australia's second largest chicken and poultry processor) was sitting in his office in North Ryde, Sydney in June 2006 reflecting on the meeting which had just ended with Geoff Frost, Group CEO, on the strategy for extending the BBX initiative group wide. Without any doubt, the work which Geoff and he had initiated in the Beresfield plant had been extraordinarily successful. Since launch in 2005, it had already delivered verified savings of over $3 m, which would be annualised at over $5 m. The key questions he now had to address were:
How to get this level of change implemented throughout the group?
How to ensure sustainability of this initiative?
How to go beyond this, and embed a culture of continual improvement for the future?
Phillip was not underestimating the challenge of the task ahead. He had just finished reviewing the detailed diagnostic data from the Hanwood, NSW site which had shown that while most of the key themes for change were consistent with Beresfield, the differences in such things as plant layout, skills and work practises suggested that less than 30 per cent of the Beresfield change initiatives would be applicable group wide. He mused therefore that a simple roll out of implemented changes from Beresfield across the whole group was definitely not an option. However, he had not been counting on such a roll out as he believed passionately in the adage – change imposed is change opposed.
There are few evaluations of strategies to improve rates of early
detection and treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis
To evaluate the effectiveness of a general practitioner (GP) education
programme and an early detection assessment team (the Lambeth Early Onset
Crisis Assessment Team; LEO CAT) in reducing delays in accessing
treatment for first-episode psychosis patients.
46 clusters of GP practices randomised to GP education in early detection
with direct access to LEO CATv. care as usual. Primary
outcome measures were GP referral rates, duration of untreated psychosis
(DUP) and delays in receiving treatment. Results 150
patients with first-episode psychosis were recruited; 113 were registered
with the study GPs, who referred 54 (47.7%) directly to mental health
services. Significantly more intervention group GPs (86.1%
v. 65.7%) referred their patients directly to mental
health services and fewer patients experienced long delays in receiving
treatment. However, their overall DUP was unaffected
Educating GPs improves detection and referral rates of first-episode
psychosis patients. An early detection team reduces the long delays in
initial assessment and treatment. However, these only impact on the later
phases of the DUP. Broader measures, such as public health education, are
needed to reduce the earlier delays in DUP.