Calibration curves spanning several millennia are now available in this special issue of R
adiocarbon. These curves, nearly all derived from the 14C age determinations of wood samples, are to be used for the age conversion of samples that were formed through use of atmospheric CO2. When samples are formed in reservoirs (eg, lakes and oceans) that differ in specific 14C content from the atmosphere, an age adjustment is needed because a conventional 14C age, although taking into account 14C (and 13C) fractionation, does not correct for the difference in specific 14C activity (Stuiver & Polach, 1977). The 14C ages of samples grown in these environments are too old, and a reservoir age correction has to be applied. This phenomenon has been referred to as the reservoir effect (Stuiver & Polach, 1977).