To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Increased intraindividual variability (IIV) of cognitive performance is a marker of cognitive decline in older adults. Whether computerized cognitive training (CCT) and aerobic exercise counteracts cognitive decline by reducing IIV is unknown. We investigated the effects of CCT with or without aerobic exercise on IIV in older adults.
This was a secondary analysis of an 8-week randomized controlled trial. Older adults (aged 65–85 years) were randomized to CCT alone (n = 41), CCT with aerobic exercise (n = 41), or an active control group (n = 42). The CCT group trained using the Fit Brains® platform 3×/week for 1 hr (plus 3×/week of home-based training). The CCT with aerobic exercise group received 15 min of walking plus 45 min of Fit Brains® 3×/week (plus 3×/week of home-based training). The control group received sham exercise and cognitive training (3×/week for 1 hr). We computed reaction time IIV from the Dimensional Change Card Sort Test, Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test (Flanker), and Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test (PACPS).
Compared with the control group, IIV reduced in a processing speed task (PACPS) following CCT alone (mean difference [95% confidence interval]: −0.144 [−0.255 to −0.034], p < 0.01) and CCT with aerobic exercise (−0.113 [−0.225 to −0.001], p < 0.05). Attention (Flanker congruent) IIV was reduced only after CCT with aerobic exercise (−0.130 [−0.242 to −0.017], p < 0.05).
A CCT program promoted cognitive health via reductions in IIV of cognitive performance and combining it with aerobic exercise may result in broader benefits.
Shattercane is a problematic summer annual grass weed species in regions that produce grain sorghum. Three shattercane populations (DC8, GH4, and PL8) collected from sorghum fields from northwestern Kansas survived the field-use rate (52 g ha−1) of postemergence-applied imazamox. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm and characterize the level of resistance to imazamox in putative imazamox-resistant (IMI-R) shattercane populations, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of postemergence herbicides for controlling IMI-R populations. A previously known imazamox susceptible (SUS) shattercane population from Rooks County, KS, was used. All three putative populations exhibited a 4.1-fold to 6.0-fold resistance to imazamox compared with the SUS population. The ALS gene sequences from all IMI-R populations did not reveal any known target-site resistance mutations. A pretreatment with malathion, which inhibits cytochrome P450, followed by imazamox at various doses, reversed the resistance phenotype of the PL8 population. In a separate greenhouse study, postemergence treatments with nicosulfuron, quizalofop, clethodim, and glyphosate resulted in ≥96% injury to all IMI-R populations. The lack of known ALS target-site mutations and the reversal of resistance phenotype by malathion suggest the possibility of metabolism-based resistance to imazamox in PL8 shattercane population.
The NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program supports the creation of program infrastructure promoting scientific collaboration and improvement in translational research. While most evaluations of these and similar programs focus on scientific outcomes such as grants and publications, few studies investigate the underlying mechanisms through which large infrastructure grants produce scientific or translational benefits. This study investigated how engagement – researchers’ interactions with CTSA-funded resources – can help to increase scientific productivity.
Authors 1) developed process indicators to define engagement in the CTSA infrastructure at Washington University in St. Louis in four general categories (core service use, internal funding, mentor-mentee opportunities, and leadership roles); 2) explored the relationship between CTSA engagement and scholarly productivity; and 3) compared the relationships between engagement and productivity across gender and race/ethnicity. Mixed effects Poisson regressions modeled productivity outcomes on engagement, controlling for demographic and academic characteristics.
CTSA members who were engaged were more likely to publish papers and submit grants when compared to others. They were more likely to receive external grant awards – 10% to 20% percent more – than those who were not engaged. Productivity disparities between men and women and to a lesser extent across categories of race and ethnicity persisted even in samples matched on previous productivity levels.
CTSAs could see larger growth in scientific productivity by increasing researcher engagement and addressing demographic disparities – possibly through focused communications to raise awareness of opportunities – and dissemination of case studies and success stories of engagement to membership.
Kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A and KS-4H) collected from a corn field near Garden City, KS, have previously shown multiple resistance to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. These accessions were also suspected as being resistant to photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm the coexistence of cross-resistance to PS II inhibitors (atrazine and metribuzin) applied PRE and POST, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of PS II-inhibitor resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of alternative POST herbicides for control of these multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) kochia accessions. Results from dose-response experiments revealed that the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions were 23-fold to 48-fold resistant to PRE- and POST-applied atrazine and 13-fold to 18-fold resistant to POST-applied metribuzin compared to a known susceptible kochia accession (KS-SUS). Both accessions also showed putative resistance to PRE-applied metribuzin that needs to be confirmed. Sequence analyses of the psbA gene further revealed that all samples from the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions had a Ser264Gly point mutation. A pretreatment with malathion followed by a POST application of atrazine at 1,120 g ha−1 or metribuzin at 630 g ha−1 did not reverse the resistance phenotypes of these MHR accessions. In a separate greenhouse study, alternative POST herbicides, including bicyclopyrone + bromoxynil; bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole; paraquat alone or in combination with atrazine, metribuzin, 2,4-D, or saflufenacil; and saflufenacil alone or in combination with 2,4-D effectively controlled the KS-4H accession (≥97% injury). To our knowledge, this research reports the first case of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to PRE-applied atrazine and POST-applied metribuzin. Growers should adopt diversified weed control strategies, including the use of competitive crops, cover crops, targeted tillage, and harvest weed seed control along with effective alternative PRE and POST herbicides with multiple sites of action to control MHR kochia seedbanks on their production fields.
In the midst of a global pandemic, hospitals around the world are working to meet the demand for patients ill with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China. As the crisis unfolds, several countries have reported lower numbers as well as less morbidity and mortality for pediatric patients. Thus, pediatric centers find themselves pivoting from preparing for a patient surge to finding ways to support the regional response for adults. This study describes the response from 2 West Coast freestanding academic children’s hospitals that were among the first cities in the United States impacted during this pandemic.
Approximately 75% of prescription opioid abusers obtain the drug from an acquaintance, which may be a consequence of improper opioid storage, use, disposal, and lack of patient education. We aimed to determine the opioid storage, use, and disposal patterns in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a comprehensive cancer center.
We surveyed 113 patients receiving opioids for at least 2 months upon presenting to the ED and collected information regarding opioid use, storage, and disposal. Unsafe storage was defined as storing opioids in plain sight, and unsafe use was defined as sharing or losing opioids.
The median age was 53 years, 55% were female, 64% were white, and 86% had advanced cancer. Of those surveyed, 36% stored opioids in plain sight, 53% kept them hidden but unlocked, and only 15% locked their opioids. However, 73% agreed that they would use a lockbox if given one. Patients who reported that others had asked them for their pain medications (p = 0.004) and those who would use a lockbox if given one (p = 0.019) were more likely to keep them locked. Some 13 patients (12%) used opioids unsafely by either sharing (5%) or losing (8%) them. Patients who reported being prescribed more pain pills than required (p = 0.032) were more likely to practice unsafe use. Most (78%) were unaware of proper opioid disposal methods, 6% believed they were prescribed more medication than required, and 67% had unused opioids at home. Only 13% previously received education about safe disposal of opioids. Overall, 77% (87) of patients reported unsafe storage, unsafe use, or possessed unused opioids at home.
Significance of Results:
Many cancer patients presenting to the ED improperly and unsafely store, use, or dispose of opioids, thus highlighting a need to investigate the impact of patient education on such practices.
The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal structure and functionality in broiler chickens subjected to coccidial challenge. The present study was a randomised complete block design employing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (n 8) with three dietary concentrations of Arg (11·1, 13·3 and 20·2 g/kg) with or without coccidial vaccine challenge (unchallenged and coccidial challenge). On day 14, birds were orally administered with coccidial vaccine or saline. On day 21, birds were killed to obtain jejunal tissue and mucosal samples for histological, gene expression and mucosal immunity measurements. Within 7 d of the challenge, there was a decrease in body-weight gain and feed intake, and an increase in the feed:gain ratio (P< 0·05). Jejunal inflammation was evidenced by villus damage, crypt dilation and goblet cell depletion. Coccidial challenge increased mucosal secretory IgA concentration and inflammatory gene (iNOS, IL-1β, IL-8 and MyD88) mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05), as well as reduced jejunal Mucin-2, IgA and IL-1RI mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05). Increasing Arg concentration (1) increased jejunal villus height (P< 0·05) and linearly increased jejunal crypt depth (P< 0·05); (2) quadratically increased mucosal maltase activity (P< 0·05) and linearly decreased mucosal secretory IgG concentration (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups; and (3) linearly decreased jejunal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression level (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups. The mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway genes (mTOR and RPS6KB1) and the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 quadratically responded to increasing dietary Arg supplementation (P< 0·05). These results indicate that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption in coccidiosis-challenged chickens probably through suppressing TLR4 and activating mTOR complex 1 pathways.
In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1·05, 1·42 and 1·90 %) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0·99, 1·39, 1·76, 2·13 or 2·53 %) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14–21 d; P< 0·05). LPS injection suppressed (P< 0·05) the percentages of splenic CD11+ and B cells (percentages of splenic lymphocytes) and phagocytic activity of splenic heterophils and macrophages; Arg supplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (P< 0·10). LPS injection increased (P< 0·05) the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in the spleen and caecal tonsils. Arginine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) the expression of IL-1β, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and PPAR-γ mRNA in the spleen and IL-1β, IL-10, TLR4 and NF-κB mRNA in the caecal tonsils. In Expt 2, increasing dietary Arg concentrations linearly and quadratically reduced the percentage of circulating B cells (P< 0·01). Collectively, Arg supplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1·76 %) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells.
The modern practice of sedation is the end result of a process of evolution in alteration of consciousness, likely starting with the discovery of the analgesic properties of ether. Recent technological advances have drastically changed the practice of sedation. One of the most significant was certainly the development of pulse oximetry during World War II by Glen Millikan. In 2002, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) appointed a task force to update practice guidelines for non-anesthesiologists administering sedation and analgesia. The Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) has produced guidelines for what every registered nurse should know about "conscious sedation". According to the AORN, moderate sedation/analgesia is produced by the administration of amnesic, analgesic, and sedative pharmacologic agents. With continued attention to a high standard of safety, many different professionals are able to provide sedation services to those patients who need them.
A sample with a radiocarbon concentration estimated to be greater than 105 times Modern was inadvertently graphitized and measured in the Xi'an AMS system last year. Both the sample preparation lines and the ion source system were seriously contaminated and a series of cleaning procedures were carried out to remove the contamination from them. After repeated and careful cleaning as well as continuous flushing with dead CO2 gas, both systems have recovered from the contamination event. The machine background is back to 2.0 x 10–16 and the chemical blank is beyond 50 kyr.
This study examined the influence of different resistant starch (RS) varieties and conventional fibres on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation in pigs. Thirty-six pigs (30 kg) were fed poultry meal-based diets supplemented with 10 % granular resistant corn starch (GCS), granular resistant potato starch (GPS), retrograded resistant corn starch (RCS), guar gum (GG) or cellulose for 36 d according to a completely randomised block design. Distal ileal and total tract recoveries were similar (P>0·05) among the RS varieties. Distal ileal starch recovery was higher (P < 0·05) in pigs consuming the RS diets (27–42 %) as compared with the control group (0·64 %). Consumption of GCS reduced (P < 0·05) apparent total tract digestibility and whole-body retention of crude protein in comparison with the control group. Consumption of GPS reduced (P < 0·05) total tract Ca digestibility and whole-body retention of Ca and P compared with the control group. However, consumption of RCS increased (P < 0·05) total tract Ca digestibility compared with the control group. Caecal butyrate concentration was increased (P < 0·05) following consumption of RCS and GG in comparison with the control group. Consumption of all the RS varieties reduced (P < 0·05) caecal indole concentrations compared with the control. Caecal butyrate concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0·05; r 0·63–0·83) with thermal properties among the RS varieties. We conclude that nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of different RS varieties and types of fibres. Thermal properties associated with different RS varieties may be useful markers for developing RS varieties with specific functionality.
Future microprocessor technologies will require interlayer dielectric (ILD) materials with a dielectric constant (κ-value) less than 2.5. Organosilicate glass (OSG) materials must be nanoporous to meet this demand. However, the introduction of nanopores creates many integration challenges. These challenges include 1) integrating nanoporous films with low mechanical strength into conventional process flows, 2) managing etch profiles, 3) processinduced damage to the nanoporous ILD, and 4) controlling the metal/nanoporous ILD interface. This paper reviews research to maximize mechanical strength by engineering optimal pore structures, controlling trench bottom roughness induced by etching and understanding its relationship to pore size, repairing plasma damage using silylation chemistry, and sealing a nanoporous surface for barrier metal (liner) deposition.
Conventionally cast and hot-rolled Ni-Fe-AI-B alloys containing 4-20 at.% Fe, 23.9- 31.5 at.% Al, and 300 wppm B were investigated in this study. After oil quenching from 1300°C, all the alloys—except SMA-15 (27A1-14Fe)—have at least a two-phase microstructure, one phase of which is martensite with the characteristic plate morphology, and the other a globular second phase distributed throughout the microstructure. The amount of second phase generally increases with increasing Fe content. Alloys containing less than 14% Fe were found to be quite brittle at room temperature, indicating that a ductile second phase is at least partly responsible for the improved room-temperature ductility in the high-Fe alloys. The best tensile ductility (12%) was obtained in SMA-17 (23.9AI-20Fe) which was shown by X-ray diffraction to consist of 40% (mostly disordered) fcc [(Ni,Fe)3 (AI,Fe)] + 30% (partly ordered) bct martensite + 30% B2. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the transformation temperatures for this alloy were MP = 65°C and AP = 95°C. Room-temperature tensile strains of 2-3% could be almost completely recovered in SMA-17 by heating for 3 min. at 600°C with the load removed. Upon subsequent cycling (i.e., strain-anneal cycling), the amount of strain recovery increased dramatically from 70% in the first cycle to nearly 100% after 4-5 cycles, indicating that cold work may help in improving the shape memory characteristics of this alloy. SMA-15 was found to have significantly higher transformation temperatures (Mp = 143°C and Ap = 170°C) than SMA-17; however, it is relatively brittle compared to SMA-17.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.