To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pneumoperitoneum with CO2 gas begins the process of systemic acidification by altering the ultrastructural, metabolic, and immune functions of the peritoneum. Both direct and indirect effects of CO2 can be seen in numerous aspects of the cardiovascular system. Both obese and non-obese patients undergo laparoscopy at 15 mm Hg of CO2 gas in order to provide adequate visualization while minimizing the detrimental effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). An overall decrease in renal perfusion and a resultant increase in hormonal activity occur with pneumoperitoneum. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require lower IAP during laparoscopy. Effective preventions or control of detrimental effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum are key to maintaining the safety profile of laparoscopy. Nevertheless, with the numerous benefits that stem from sequential compression devices (SCDs), their routine use has become widely recommended for all laparoscopic surgery.