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To develop an equation that can estimate the 24-h urinary Na excretion by using casual spot urine specimen for older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia and further to compare with the INTERSALT method, Kawasaki method and Tanaka method.
Older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia provided their casual spot urine samples and 24-h urine samples between January 2015 and February 2017. Sex-specific equation was developed using linear forward stepwise regression analysis. Model fit was assessed using adjusted R2. Approximately half of all participants were randomly selected to validate the equation. Mean differences, intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate the performance of all methods.
Pingluo County and Qingtongxia County in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.
Older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia.
Totally, 807 of 1120 invited participants provided qualified 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples. There was no statistical difference comparing the laboratory-based method against the new method and the INTERSALT method, while Kawasaki method had the largest bias with a mean difference of 40·81 g/d (95 % CI 39·27, 42·35 g/d). Bland–Altman plots showed similar pattern of the results.
The INTERSALT method and the new equation have the potential to estimate the 24-h urinary Na excretion in this study population. However, the extrapolation of the results to other population needs to be careful. Future research is required to establish a more reliable method to estimate 24-h urinary Na excretion.
The interaction between galaxies is believed to be the main origin of the peculiarities of galaxies. It can disturb not only the morphology but also the kinematics of galaxies. These disturbed and asymmetric features are the indicators of galaxy interaction. We study the velocity field of ionized gas in galaxy pairs based on MaNGA survey. Using the kinemetry package, we fit the velocity field and quantify the degree of kinematic asymmetry. We find that the fraction of high kinematic asymmetry is much higher for galaxy pairs with dp⩽30h−1kpc. Moreover, compared to a control sample of single galaxies, we find that the star formation rate is enhanced in paired galaxies with high kinematic asymmetry. For paired galaxies with low kinematic asymmetry, no significant SFR enhancement has been found. The galaxy pairs with high kinematic asymmetry are more likely to be real interacting galaxies rather than projected pairs.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
A class of finite volume methods is developed for pricing either European or American options under jump-diffusion models based on a linear finite element space. An easy to implement linear interpolation technique is derived to evaluate the integral term involved, and numerical analyses show that the full discrete system matrices are M-matrices. For European option pricing, the resulting dense linear systems are solved by the generalised minimal residual (GMRES) method; while for American options the resulting linear complementarity problems (LCP) are solved using the modulus-based successive overrelaxation (MSOR) method, where the H+-matrix property of the system matrix guarantees convergence. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of these methods.
The formation of NaH molecules in the lowest rovibrational level of the ground electronic state is investigated using a pump-dump photoassociation (PA) scheme. In short-range region, two colliding atoms Na and H are efficiently associated into the NaH molecule in the rovibrational |0,0〉 state of the ground electronic state via the intermediately rovibrational |10,1〉 state of the excited electronic state. The changes of populations with the electric field amplitudes, frequency detunings, dump pulse duration and delay time between two laser pulses are calculated and discussed. The PA probability reaches 0.623 with a high state-selectivity.
Six flow modes are distinguished in the flow-focusing experiments of a liquid jet forced by a high-speed air stream. The domains of the modes are identified on the parameter space of the liquid flow rate Ql and the gas pressure drop Δpg. The disturbance wavelength λ and breakup length L of the jet are also measured. A theoretical model considering axisymmetric disturbances is proposed, and a basic velocity profile of hyperbolic-tangent function is utilized. The linear temporal and spatio-temporal instability analyses are carried out using the Chebyshev collocation method. The effects of the flow parameters and the velocity profile on the flow instability are discussed. The temporal instability analysis demonstrates that the interfacial shear causes the instability of short waves and retards the instability of long waves. Moreover, the spatio-temporal instability analysis gives the transition boundary between the absolute and convective instability (AI/CI). The most unstable wavelength predicted by the temporal instability analysis and the AI/CI boundary predicted by the spatio-temporal instability analysis are in good agreement with the experimental results.
An electron-beam accelerator based on spiral water pulse forming line which consists of a primary storage capacitor system, an air core spiral strip transformer, a spiral pulse forming line of water dielectric, and a field-emission diode, is described. The experimental results showed that the diode voltage is more than 500 kV, the electron beam current of diode is about 24 kA, and the pulse duration is about 200 ns. The main parameters of the accelerator were calculated theoretically. The distributions for electrical field in the pulse forming line were obtained by the simulations. In addition, the process of the accelerator charging a spiral pulse forming line was simulated through the Pspice software to get the waveforms of charging voltage of pulse forming line, the diode voltage and diode current of accelerator. The theoretical and simulated results agree with the experimental results. This accelerator is very compact and works stably and reliably.
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