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A novel shock tube is designed to investigate the nonlinear feature of convergent Richtmyer–Meshkov instability on a single-mode interface formed by a soap film technique. The shock tube employs a concave–oblique–convex wall profile which first transforms a planar shock into a cylindrical arc, then gradually strengthens the cylindrical shock along the oblique wall, and finally converts it back into a planar one. Therefore, the new facility can realize analysis on compressibility and nonlinearity of convergent Richtmyer–Meshkov instability by eliminating the interface deceleration and reshock. Five sinusoidal
interfaces with different amplitudes and wavelengths are considered. For all cases, the perturbation amplitude experiences a linear growth much longer than that in the planar geometry. A compressible linear model is derived by considering a constant uniform fluid compression, which shows a slight difference to the incompressible theory. However, both the linear models overestimate the perturbation growth from a very early stage due to the presence of strong nonlinearity. The nonlinear model of Wang et al. (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 22, 2015, 082702) is demonstrated to predict well the amplitude growth up to a normalized time of 1.0. The prolongation of the linear increment is mainly ascribed to the counteraction between the promotion by geometric convergence and the suppression by nonlinearity. Growths of the first three harmonics, obtained by a Fourier analysis of the interface contour, provide a first thorough validation of the nonlinear theory.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
Associations have been shown between father’s absence and menarcheal age, but most studies have focused on absence resulting from divorce, abandonment or death. Little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect on menarcheal age of paternal absence through migrant work. In a sample of 400 middle school students, this study examined the association between paternal migrant work and menarcheal age against a backdrop of extensive rural-to-urban migration in China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire, including social-demographic characteristics, aspects of family relationships, information about father’s migrant work and age at menarche. After adjusting for BMI, parent marital status and perceived relationship with mother, lower self-perceived quality of father–daughter relationship (both ‘father present, relationship poor’ and ‘father absent, relationship poor’) and lower frequency of contact with the father were associated with higher odds for early menarche. These findings suggest that the assumption that father’s absence for work influences the timing of menarche needs to be examined in the context of the quality of the father–daughter relationship and paternal care, which appear to play a critical role in the timing of menarche. These findings also emphasize the importance of enhancing paternal involvement and improving father–daughter relationships in the development of appropriate reproductive strategy in daughters.
Composite materials include various components with different structures, which cooperatively increase their properties and extend their application. In this study, the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) guest material was assembled into the porous of the SiO2 aerogel, which was prepared during the gel process. By this way, the g-C3N4 could be absolutely encapsulated into the porous of the disordered porous SiO2 aerogel. The prepared g-C3N4/SiO2 composite had a loose porous structure and exhibited the much higher photocatalytic activity to the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. The disordered porous structure enhanced photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rate reached to 96.42% in 90 min under the irradiation of visible light, which could be attributed to its high surface area and effective electron–hole separation rate. The catalyst had the much higher stability and could be easily recycled utilization. The prepared composites could be applied to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater.
A field study to optimize the nitrogen (N) top-dressing mode of panicle fertilization and improve rice yields was conducted in mid-eastern China. Japonica cultivar Yunongjing-6 was grown and panicle N fertilizer was applied at the beginning of the inverted fourth leaf stage using three different modes: manual broadcast application (BA) on the soil surface as a control treatment, deep application during ditching at a depth of 15 cm (DD) and manual BA on the soil surface during deep ditching (BAD). The activity of soil enzymes, including invertase, urease, phosphatase and catalase, was increased significantly at the jointing, booting and grain-filling stages with the DD and BAD treatments compared with the traditional BA mode. The DD and BAD treatments also increased basal internode and neck-panicle internode bleeding intensity. The DD treatment gave the highest crop yield, increasing the yield by 0.63 and 0.31 t/hm2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, compared with BA. The results suggest that ditching during panicle N fertilizer application after sun-drying of the fields increases rice yields, most likely by improving the activity of soil enzymes and enhancing the physiological activity of roots and grain weight.
Since the ‘Grain to Green Program' was launched in 1999 in the Loess Plateau, China, the processes and patterns of ecological change have become important. Through the use of the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) index, this study examines the spatial distribution and temporal change of vegetation cover in the Loess Plateau during 2000–2014. Over this period more than 60% of the Loess Plateau has remained with little vegetation cover (FVC <30%). The spatial distribution pattern shows an overall increase from the NW to SE. Temporally, the vegetation cover exhibits a general trend of improvement. In 2000–2005, 2000–2010 and 2000–2014, the percentages of restored vegetation (vegetation with significantly increased FVC, P<0.05) were 2, 21 and 52%, respectively. The rate of vegetation cover restoration was highly variable among different bioclimatic zones. The expansion of restored vegetation was greater in the N of the Loess Plateau than in the south. Both human restoration activities and climatic fluctuation influenced the vegetation cover change. The ‘Grain to Green Program' emphasised vegetation restoration. Regional precipitation also had clear effects on vegetation cover. The results of this study reveal that vegetation change shows a non-linear process in response to climate and ecological restoration measures, and that the change gradually emerges over time. This study highlights the importance of considering the spatiotemporal variability in vegetation cover during the implementation of restoration programs, which could aid decision-making for the effective and sustainable management of large-scale restoration programs.
We propose a new adaptive and composite Barzilai–Borwein (BB) step size by integrating the advantages of such existing step sizes. Particularly, the proposed step size is an optimal weighted mean of two classical BB step sizes and the weights are updated at each iteration in accordance with the quality of the classical BB step sizes. Combined with the steepest descent direction, the adaptive and composite BB step size is incorporated into the development of an algorithm such that it is efficient to solve large-scale optimization problems. We prove that the developed algorithm is globally convergent and it R-linearly converges when applied to solve strictly convex quadratic minimization problems. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms available in the literature, the proposed step size is more efficient in solving ill-posed or large-scale benchmark test problems.
The aims of this systematic review were to examine the effects of the overall and the different types of the interventions on the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) designation and the time between DNR and death among cancer patients.
Data were searched from the databases of PubMed, CINAHL, EMbase, Medline, and Cochrane Library through 2 November 2017. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were (1) randomized control trails, quasi-experimental study, and retrospective observational studies and (2) used outcome indicators of DNR designation rates. The Effective Public Health Practice Project tool was used to assess the overall quality of the included studies.
The 14 studies with a total of 7,180 participants were included in this review. There were 78.6% (11 of 14) studies that indicated that the interventions could improve the DNR designation rates. Three types of DNR interventions were identified in this review: palliative care unit service, palliative consultation services, and patient-physician communication program. The significant increases of the time between DNR designation and death only occurred in a patient-physician communication program.
Significance of results:
The palliative care unit service provided a continuing care model to reduce unnecessary utilization of healthcare service. The palliative consultation service is a new care model to meet the needs of cancer patients in non-palliative care unit. The share decision-making communication program and physician's compassion attitudes facilitate to make DNR decision early. The individualized DNR program needs to be developed according to the needs of cancer patients.
Coupling superconductors to quantum Hall edge states is the subject of intense investigation as part of the ongoing search for non-abelian excitations. Our group has previously observed supercurrents of hundreds of picoamperes in graphene Josephson junctions in the quantum Hall regime. One of the explanations of this phenomenon involves the coupling of an electron edge state on one side of the junction to a hole edge state on the opposite side. In our previous samples, these states are separated by several microns. Here, a narrow trench perpendicular to the contacts creates counterpropagating quantum Hall edge channels tens of nanometres from each other. Transport measurements demonstrate a change in the low-field Fraunhofer interference pattern for trench devices and show a supercurrent in both trench and reference junctions in the quantum Hall regime. The trench junctions show no enhancement of quantum Hall supercurrent and an unexpected supercurrent periodicity with applied field, suggesting the need for further optimization of device parameters.
A novel synthetic air data estimation method without using air data sensors is presented, and the method only relies on the information from the Navigation System (NS) and Flight Control System (FCS). The aircraft's aerodynamic model is also required to make a connection between the FCS control parameters and the NS measurements. The airspeed, angle of attack and sideslip, angular velocity and wind speed are defined as state vectors, and state equations are established through the aircraft's aerodynamic model and dynamics. Linear velocity and angular velocity provided by the navigation system are considered as the measurement vector. To deal with variable wind fields, a novel Initialised Three-step Extended Kalman Filter (ITEKF), which considers the wind speed as an unknown input, is developed to track the variation of wind speed. Simulation results based on a Generic Hypersonic Vehicle (GHV) model are presented and compared with an existing method. Factors affecting the method's accuracy include the navigation system accuracy and the aerodynamic model error, are also discussed.
Parents commonly fail to correctly recognize the weight status of their child. Whether parental perception of child weight is associated with weight-related parenting behaviours and child behaviours is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of parental perception of child weight and its associations with weight-related parenting behaviours and child behaviours in China.
Seven provinces in China.
A total of 47 417 children aged 6–17 years and their parents were included from a national survey in 2013. Parental perception of child weight, weight-related parenting behaviours and child behaviours were self-reported. Child’s weight and height were objectively measured.
A total of 30·5 % of parents underestimated and 8·7 % overestimated the child’s weight. Parental underestimation was more common among younger children, boys and children with a lower BMI Z-score. Parents who perceived that their child had a healthy weight (accurately or inaccurately) were more likely to prepare breakfast for the child, exercise with him/her, set apart his/her exercise time, restrict his/her screen time, and were less likely to store soft drinks for the child. Children perceived to have a healthy weight, regardless of their actual weight status, behaved healthier on dietary intake, physical activity and homework time.
Parental underestimation of their child’s weight was prominent in China, especially among younger children, boys and children with a lower BMI Z-score. Parental recognition of their child being overweight did not appear to translate into healthy changes in weight-related parenting behaviours or child behaviours.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of suicidal behaviours through psychiatric comorbidities; however, a significant direct association has not been observed between ADHD and suicide attempts.
To evaluate the risk of suicide attempt in adolescents and young adults with ADHD.
Using a nationwide, population-based insurance claims database, this longitudinal cohort study enrolled 20 574 adolescents and young adults with ADHD and 61 722 age- and gender-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. Any suicide attempt was identified from enrolment to 31 December 2011. The association between ADHD medications and the likelihood of suicide attempt was assessed.
ADHD was an independent risk factor for any suicide attempt (hazard ratio = 3.84, 95% CI = 3.19–4.62) and repeated suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 6.52, 95% CI = 4.46–9.53). Subgroup analyses of men, women, adolescents and young adults demonstrated the same trend. Methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatment did not increase the risk of suicide attempt or repeated suicide attempts. Long-term methylphenidate treatment was associated with a significantly decreased risk of repeated suicide attempts in men (hazard ratio = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22–0.97).
ADHD was a risk factor for suicide attempt and a stronger predictor of repeated suicide attempts, independent of comorbidities. Further investigation is warranted to explore the mechanism underlying the association between ADHD and suicidal behaviours.
Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS).
Apathy was assessed through the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). 1H MRS was performed to measure neurochemical metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate region and right orbitofrontal region. Associations between neurochemical metabolites and the total score and subscores of each domain of the AES were analyzed.
Altogether, 36 patients completed the study. Patients with lower N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) in the anterior cingulate region demonstrated higher total apathy scores (β = −0.56, p = 0.003) with adjustments for age, gender, educational level, dementia severity, and depression severity. In a further analysis, a lower NAA/Cr in the anterior cingulate region was associated with all subdomains of apathy, including cognition (β = −0.43, p = 0.028), behavior (β = −0.55, p = 0.002), and emotion (β = −0.50, p = 0.005). No statistically significant associations were discovered in the right orbitofrontal region.
Our results suggest that apathy, in each of its cognitive, behavioral, or emotional subdomains is associated with brain neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate region. Abnormal neuronal integrity over the anterior cingulate cortex may exhibit a central role in causing all aspects of apathy in patients with AD.
Nutritional status of 380 hospitalised children aged from 1 month to 5 years with liver disease was evaluated in a single paediatric centre. The total prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z (HAZ) < −2), underweight (weight-for-age Z (WAZ) < −2) and wasting (weight-for-height Z < −2) was 9·8, 9·0 and 7·9 %, respectively. The overall nutritional risk (−2 ≤ Z < −1) of stunting, underweight and wasting was 11·8, 12·9 and 12·6 %. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly higher in children with cholestasis than children without cholestasis (stunting, 17·5 %/4·4 %, P < 0·001, and underweight, 14·9 %/4·9 %, P < 0·001). HAZ and WAZ scores were significantly higher in children without cholestasis than children with cholestasis (0·58 (sd 1·59)/−0·68 (sd 1·99), P < 0·001, and 0·37 (sd 1·35)/−0·47 (sd 1·75), P < 0·001). Further multivariate logistic regression analysis strengthened the evidence that cholestasis was significantly associated with undernutrition of stunting (OR = 4·18, P = 0·002) and underweight (OR = 3·26, P = 0·008), and suggested that the prevalence of stunting caused by infection was lower than other aetiologies in hospitalised children with liver disease (OR = 0·10, P = 0·002). We concluded that a high prevalence of malnutrition and risk of undernutrition presents in hospitalised young children with liver disease, especially in children with cholestasis. Nutrition assessment is recommended for hospitalised children with liver disease.
We present preliminary results from a study exploring the origin of Milky Way substructures, and show initial evidence of a common “kicked-out” formation mechanism for two low-latitude substructures. In this scenario, stars in these substructures formed in the disk and were subsequently “kicked-out” by an external perturbation, such as the merger of an accreted satellite, which created an oscillation in the Galactic disk. To test this origin scenario, we found the fraction of different stellar populations – M giants and RR Lyrae stars – in the Monoceros Ring (also known as GASS) and A13, supplementing a study of stellar populations in the Triangulum-Andromeda cloud. This work provides: (1) the first analysis of the GASS and A13 features based upon their stellar populations; and (2) preliminary evidence of disk stars in the Milky Way that have been relocated to the disk-halo interface due to vertical oscillations of the Milky Way’s disk.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
The Middle and early Late Triassic of southern China is well known for a remarkable diversity of marine vertebrates, particularly reptiles, including an abundance of intriguing new forms (e.g., Jiang et al., 2005; Hu et al., 2011; Li et al., 2016). Here we describe a new diapsid from Yunnan Province. It possesses an elongate neck that exhibits a remarkable similarity to that of many Protorosauria, yet in other respects the skull and postcranium are much less derived.
The new taxon is part of the so-called Panxian-Luoping Fauna and the deposits correspond to the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation, comprising thin to medium bedded, gray to dark-gray laminated marly limestone and limestone, with several layers of bentonite intercalated in the fossil level at Panxian (Wan, 2002; Motani et al., 2008; Jiang et al., 2009). Their age is Pelsonian (middle Anisian, Middle Triassic) as is indicated by the conodont Nicoraella kockeli Zone (Sun et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2009). A recent U-Pb study indicates the absolute age of these middle Anisian beds to be close to 244 Ma (Wang et al., 2014).