To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A new poetic century demands a new set of approaches. This Companion shows that American poetry of the twenty-first century, while having important continuities with the poetry of the previous century, takes place in new modes and contexts that require new critical paradigms. Offering a comprehensive introduction to studying the poetry of the new century, this collection highlights the new, multiple centers of gravity that characterize American poetry today. Essays on African American, Asian American, Latinx, and Indigenous poetries respond to the centrality of issues of race and indigeneity in contemporary American discourse. Other essays explore poetry and feminism, poetry and disability, and queer poetics. The environment, capitalism, and war emerge as poetic preoccupations, alongside a range of styles from spoken word to the avant-garde, and an examination of poetry's place in the creative writing era.
To enhance the performance evaluation of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) hubs, we examined the utility of advanced bibliometric measures that go beyond simple publication counts to demonstrate the impact of translational research output.
The sampled data included North Carolina Translational and Clinical Science Institute (NC TraCS)-supported publications produced between September 2008 and March 2017. We adopted advanced bibliometric measures and a state-of-the-art bibliometric network analysis tool to assess research productivity, citation impact, the scope of research collaboration, and the clusters of research topics.
Totally, 754 NC TraCS-supported publications generated over 24,000 citation counts by April 2017 with an average of 33 cites per article. NC TraCS-supported research papers received more than twice as many cites per year as the average National Institute of Health-funded research publications from the same field and time. We identified the top productive researchers and their networks within the CTSA hub. Findings demonstrated the impact of NC TraCS in facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations within the CTSA hub and across the CTSA consortium and connecting researchers with right peers and organizations.
Both improved bibliometrics measures and bibliometric network analysis can bring new perspectives to CTSA evaluation via citation influence and the scope of research collaborations.
Elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. The objective of this retrospective study was to identify echocardiographic measures associated with left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12 mmHg in this population. Repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients age ≥13 years, who underwent a left heart catheterisation within 7 days of having an echocardiogram were evaluated. Univariate comparison was made in echocardiographic and clinical variables between patients with left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12 versus ≤12 mmHg. Ninety-four patients (54% male) with a median age of 24.6 years were included. Thirty-four (36%) had left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12 mmHg. Patients with left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12mmHg were older (median 32.9 versus 24.0 years, p = 0.02), more likely to have a history of an aortopulmonary shunt (62% versus 38%, p = 0.03), and have a diagnosis of hypertension (24% versus 7%, p = 0.03) compared to those with left ventricular end diastolic pressure ≤12 mmHg. There were no significant differences in mitral valve E/A ratio, annular e’ velocity, or E/e’ ratio between patients with left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12 versus ≤12 mmHg. Patients with left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12mmHg had larger left atrial area (mean 17.7 versus 14.0 cm2, p = 0.03) and larger left atrium anterior–posterior diameter (mean 36.0 versus 30.6 mm, p = 0.004). In conclusion, typical echocardiographic measures of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may not be reliable in tetralogy of Fallot patients. Prospective studies with the use of novel echocardiographic measures are needed.
The East Asian–Australasian flyway contains some of the most threatened habitats in the world, with at least 155 waterbird species reliant on the tidal habitats it comprises. The black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) is an iconic endangered species distributed across the coast of East Asia. Its population suffered a severe decline into the 1990s, but extensive monitoring and conservation interventions have aided a substantial recovery of the species. We used a population viability analysis based on data collected over the past two decades in conjunction with species distribution models to project spatially explicit models of population change for the next 35 years. Over nearly all scenarios of habitat loss and climate change, the global spoonbill population was projected to increase in the short-term due to low population numbers likely well below current population carrying capacities. However, climate change and habitat loss together threaten the recovery of the spoonbill population such that, by 2050, population declines are apparent as a consequence of these cumulative impacts. These threats are also cryptic and represent a challenge to the conservation of species recovering from anthropogenic impacts; observed population increases can hide large reductions in habitat suitability that threaten the long-term viability of species.
Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories – for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100–750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors are widely used for POST control of
sedges in turfgrass. A suspected resistant (R) biotype of annual sedge was
collected from a bermudagrass turf in Georgia with a history of exclusive
use of halosulfuron. Research was conducted to evaluate the resistance level
of this biotype to halosulfuron, efficacy of ALS-inhibiting herbicides and
other mechanisms of action for control, and the molecular and physiological
basis for resistance. In greenhouse experiments, the halosulfuron rate
required to reduce shoot biomass 50% in comparison with the nontreated at 8
wk after treatment (WAT) were 8 and > 1,120 g ai ha−1 for the
S (susceptible) and R biotypes, respectively. Imazapic, sulfosulfuron, and
trifloxysulfuron reduced biomass of the S biotype greater than 60% at 8 WAT,
but biomass was reduced less than 20% for the R biotype. Glufosinate,
glyphosate, MSMA, and sulfentrazone reduced shoot biomass of the R biotype
by 93, 86, 97, and 45%, respectively. In laboratory experiments, the
halosulfuron concentration required to inhibit ALS activity by 50% in
excised leaf tissues was 5.8 and > 1,000 μM for the S and R biotypes,
respectively. Gene sequencing of the R biotype revealed a Pro-197-Ser
substitution that confers resistance to ALS inhibitors. This is the first
report of ALS-inhibitor resistance in annual sedge and herbicide resistance
in a sedge species from a turfgrass system.
There is a rich history of incarceration literature produced by Niseis (second-generation, American-born), some of which appeared very shortly after the end of the war. This chapter focuses on selected representative texts written by Niseis, and published up through the 1970s. This body of work represents varied and deeply felt responses that are often coded critiques of the Japanese American incarceration. Three of the most foundational texts about the incarceration appeared within eight years of its official end: Miné Okubo's Citizen 13660, Hisaye Yamamoto's The Legend of Miss Sasagawara, and Monica Sone's Nisei Daughter. Notable in all three texts is an overt description or narrative of camp life and a covert critique of the racism and failure of an espoused U.S. democracy. As a dissenting text, John Okada's No-No Boy was direct in its depiction of the cost wrought by the war, incarceration, and reductive, racist notions of citizenship.
Quantum probability (QP) provides a new perspective for cognitive science. However, one must be clear about the outcome the QP model is predicting. We discuss this concern in reference to modeling the subjective probabilities given by people as opposed to modeling the choice proportions of people. These two models would appear to have different cognitive assumptions.
To investigate nutrition literacy among adult grocery buyers regarding energy-related labelling terms on food packaging.
Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys to determine shoppers’ understanding of energy terms (‘energy’, ‘calories’ and ‘kilojoules’) and how energy terms affect perceptions of healthiness and intentions to purchase breakfast cereals, muesli bars and frozen meals.
Individual in-depth interviews and surveys in two metropolitan supermarkets, Sydney, Australia.
Australian adults (interview n 40, survey n 405) aged 18–79 years.
The relationship between energy and perceived healthiness of food varied by product type: higher energy breakfast cereals were perceived to be healthier, while lower energy frozen meals were seen as healthier choices. Likewise, intentions to purchase the higher energy product varied according to product type. The primary reason stated for purchasing higher energy products was for sustained energy. Participants from households of lower socio-economic status were significantly more likely to perceive higher energy products as healthier. From the qualitative interviews, participants expressed uncertainty about their understanding of kilojoules, while only 40 % of participants in intercept surveys correctly answered that kilojoules and calories measured the same thing.
Australian consumers have a poor understanding of energy and kilojoules and tend to perceive higher energy products as healthier and providing sustained energy. This has implications regarding the usefulness of industry front-of-pack labelling initiatives and quick service restaurant menu labelling that provides information on energy content only. Comprehensive and widely communicated education campaigns will be essential to guide consumers towards healthier choices.
The technology of flight provides immeasurable benefits for today's society: promoting global trade and commerce, providing humanitarian relief, and connecting people. In the next millennium, progressive environmental considerations will play a key role in our ability to continue to provide these benefits seamlessly. As with other transport, the consumption of petroleum-based fuels and materials draws from the Earth's finite natural resources. To move toward fully sustainable aviation, there must be a continued focus on reducing the environmental footprint over the product life cycle.
To ensure a balance between the social and economic benefits of aviation and the energy and environmental impacts, the aviation industry is working on improvements across the entire life cycle of its products and services. Opportunities for environmental improvement lie in advanced materials and manufacturing technologies, improved aerodynamics systems and engine efficiency, alternative fuels, increased fleet operational efficiency, and aircraft recycling.
To use clinical vignettes to understand antimicrobial prescribing practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
Four tertiary care NICUs.
Antibiotic prescribers in NICUs.
Clinicians from 4 tertiary care NICUs completed an anonymous survey containing 12 vignettes that described empiric, targeted, or prophylactic antibiotic use. Responses were compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for appropriate use.
Overall, 161 (59% of 271 eligible respondents) completed the survey, 37% of whom had worked in NICUs for 7 or more years. Respondents were more likely to appropriately identify use of targeted therapy for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, that is, use of oxacillin rather than vancomycin, than for Escherichia coli, that is, use of first-generation rather than third-generation cephalosporin, (P < .01). Increased experience significantly predicted appropriate prescribing (P = .02 ). The proportion of respondents choosing appropriate duration of postsurgical prophylaxis (P < .01) and treatment for necrotizing enterocolitis differed by study site (P = .03).
The survey provides insight into antibiotic prescribing practices and informs the development of future antibiotic stewardship interventions for NICUs.
Efforts to extract weak geomagnetic excursion signals from Chinese loess-paleosol 10Be have generally been unsuccessful due to the complexities of its accumulation, because the geomagnetic and climate (precipitation and dust) signals contained in loess-paleosol sequence are tightly overprinted. Here, we present a reconstruction of geomagnetic relative paleointensities for the past 130 kyr from 10Be records in 2 Chinese loess-paleosol sections using a correction based on the correlation of 10Be with magnetic susceptibility (SUS) to remove the climatic contamination. Both these records reveal the Laschamp and Blake events, which lie in the loess and paleosol (L1SS1 and S1SS3) horizons corresponding to mid-MIS 3 and 5e, respectively. The good agreement between our results and other geomagnetic intensities reconstructions from Atlantic and Pacific sediments indicates that our method is robust. Our study suggests the potential application of loess-paleosol 10Be for reconstructing geomagnetic intensity variations spanning the whole Quaternary.
A low-range pressure sensor (0-100kPa) based on the P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric thin film is proposed, where the long-term drift is eliminated by operating near the piezoelectric resonance. The pressure sensor is designed for blood pressure and tissue swelling pressure monitoring. The poled 50μm±1μm P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer film is used as the sensing element, with all fabrication and assembly materials biocompatible. A modified Butterworth-Van Dyke (BVD)  equivalent circuit model is used to characterize the sensor behavior. The pressure sensor exhibits negligible drift in weeks of operation. The device shows a sensitivity of 0.038MHz/kPa resonance frequency shift under stress, which leads to a maximum readout change of 1.1%/kPa in the present setup.
There is much discussion as to why a plant becomes invasive in a new location but is not problematic in its native range. One example is yellow starthistle, which originates in Eurasia and is considered a noxious weed in the United States. We grew yellow starthistle originating from native and introduced regions in a common environment to test whether differences in growth would be observed. In growth chamber studies, seedlings originating from the invasive range were larger than seedlings from the native range after 2 wk. Seed starch content is an important component of initial seedling growth. The starch content of seeds from introduced populations was higher than that of seeds from native populations. Regression analysis showed a relationship between the amount of starch in the seeds and the weight of yellow starthistle seedlings after 2 wk growth. There was no difference in chromosome number, except in accessions originating from Sicily and Sardinia. Field studies conducted in France and Russia revealed that rosettes and mature plants grown under natural conditions were larger when grown from seeds originating from the invasive range than from seeds originating from the native range. The number of capitula per plant and stem diameters were not significant among all populations, but differences were noted. The F1 progeny of plants originating from U.S. seed, but grown and pollinated in France, showed no differences in seedling growth, mature plant characteristics, and seed starch content from the plants grown from field-collected U.S. seed. The changes in seed starch resource allocation and its relation to plant growth is useful in understanding factors that contribute to yellow starthistle's invasibility.
Precise wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy is crucial to interconnecting circuits on different wafers in three dimensional integrated circuits. We discuss the use of fabricated structures on wafer surfaces to mechanically achieve higher alignment accuracy than can be achieved with our existing (baseline) alignment protocol. The keyed alignment structures rely on structures with tapered side-walls that can slide into each after two wafers are “pre-aligned” using our baseline alignment protocol. Results indicate that alignment accuracy is about a quarter micron, well below the one micron alignment accuracy obtained in our baseline alignment procedure using commercial state-of-the-art wafer alignment equipment. In addition to improving alignment, the alignment structures also hinder undesirable bonding-induced misalignment. The keyed alignment structures are also promising for nano-imprint lithography.
Computer models suggest that the Holocene Optimum for East Asian summer monsoon precipitation occurred at different times in different regions of China. Previous studies indicate that this time-transgressive Holocene Optimum should have been experienced about 3000 yr ago in southern China. In this study we describe a section which allows us to test this timing directly. We have closely examined high-resolution eutrophic peat/mud sequences covering the past 18,000 cal yr at Dahu, Jiangxi, on the southern boundary of the mid subtropical zone in China. Late Pleistocene successions in the Dahu record indicate cooler and much wetter conditions relative to synchronous events in north-central China. Our results indicate that the Holocene Optimum occurred between ca. 10,000 and 6000 cal yr ago in southern China, consistent with the global pattern. Conditions were relatively dry and cold from 6000 to 4000 cal yr ago. Our data also support the conclusion that the last deglaciation to early Holocene in the south was much wetter, resulting in the formation of dense broad-leaved forests, which could have acted to moderate land temperature ∼10,000 to 6000 cal yr ago, yielding a stable early-Holocene climate. After 6000 cal yr, forest reduction led to unstable land temperatures, and possibly to a northerly shift of the subtropical high-pressure system. Whatever the mechanism, these changes resulted in decreased precipitation between 6000 and 4000 cal yr B.P. in southern China.