A review of the rove beetle species of the genus Oxypoda Mannerheim from Canada and Alaska is presented. Thirty-seven species are treated, of which 4 have uncertain status, 6 are described as new to science, 8 (excluding new species) represent new distribution records for Canada, 17 (excluding new species) represent new province or territory records, 7 represent new state records, and 15 are newly synonymized. New species are Oxypoda canadensis Klimaszewski, sp. nov., O. chantali Klimaszewski, sp. nov., O. longicarinata Klimaszewski, sp. nov., O. smithi Klimaszewski, sp. nov., O. vockerothi Klimaszewski, sp. nov., and O. volkeri Klimaszewski, sp. nov. New country records are O. brachyptera (Stephens), O. gatosensis Bernhauer, O. gnara Casey, O. inimica Casey, O. orbicollis Casey, O. opaca (Gravenhorst), O. operta Sjöberg, and O. perexilis Casey. New synonyms are O. amica Casey (= O. chillcotti Lohse syn. nov.), O. convergens Casey (= O. iowensis Casey syn. nov., O. profecta Casey syn. nov.), O. dubia Fenyes (= O. tenera Bernhauer syn. nov.), O. lucidula Casey (= O. parafunebris Lohse syn. nov.), O. manitobae Casey (= O. lata Lohse syn. nov.), O. mimetica Casey (= O. truncatella Casey, O. virginica Casey, O. canora Casey, O. latebricola Casey syn. nov.), O. perexilis Casey (= O. affecta Casey, O. croceola Casey, O. mollicula Casey, O. tenuicola Casey syn. nov.), and O. subpolaris Casey (= O. hemingi Lohse syn. nov.). The Canadian and Alaskan Oxypoda species are classified into 14 new species groups reflecting their presumed relationships. All treated species are illustrated, and distribution maps are included. New data on bionomics, distribution, and relationships are presented. Hylota ochracea Casey is removed from Oxypoda and reinstated to its original combination.