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Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
TwinsUK is the largest cohort of community-dwelling adult twins in the UK. The registry comprises over 14,000 volunteer twins (14,838 including mixed, single and triplets); it is predominantly female (82%) and middle-aged (mean age 59). In addition, over 1800 parents and siblings of twins are registered volunteers. During the last 27 years, TwinsUK has collected numerous questionnaire responses, physical/cognitive measures and biological measures on over 8500 subjects. Data were collected alongside four comprehensive phenotyping clinical visits to the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London. Such collection methods have resulted in very detailed longitudinal clinical, biochemical, behavioral, dietary and socioeconomic cohort characterization; it provides a multidisciplinary platform for the study of complex disease during the adult life course, including the process of healthy aging. The major strength of TwinsUK is the availability of several ‘omic’ technologies for a range of sample types from participants, which includes genomewide scans of single-nucleotide variants, next-generation sequencing, metabolomic profiles, microbiomics, exome sequencing, epigenetic markers, gene expression arrays, RNA sequencing and telomere length measures. TwinsUK facilitates and actively encourages sharing the ‘TwinsUK’ resource with the scientific community — interested researchers may request data via the TwinsUK website (http://twinsuk.ac.uk/resources-for-researchers/access-our-data/) for their own use or future collaboration with the study team. In addition, further cohort data collection is planned via the Wellcome Open Research gateway (https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/gateways). The current article presents an up-to-date report on the application of technological advances, new study procedures in the cohort and future direction of TwinsUK.
This chapter considers world music criticism, broadly understood. What we now call ‘world music’ is a category created by a cadre of critics, DJs, retailers in the late 1980s, but, of course, the folk and traditional musics that were placed in that category have existed as long as there has been music. The beginning of this chapter examines the rise of music as a ‘genre’ in the Anglo-American music industry and its genrefication constructed and maintained, in part, by critics, who play important roles.
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease resulting in muscle weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia, and ultimately respiratory failure leading to death. Half of the ALS patients survive less than 3 years, and 80% of the patients survive less than 5 years. Riluzole is the only approved medication in Canada with randomized controlled clinical trial evidence to slow the progression of ALS, albeit only to a modest degree. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) collects data on over 140 different neuromuscular diseases including ALS across ten academic institutions and 28 clinics including ten multidisciplinary ALS clinics. Methods: In this study, CNDR registry data were analyzed to examine potential differences in ALS care among provinces in time to diagnosis, riluzole and feeding tube use. Results: Significant differences were found among provinces, in time to diagnosis from symptom onset, in the use of riluzole and in feeding tube use. Conclusions: Future investigations should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to such differences, and to propose potential interventions to address the provincial differences reported.
It is only relatively recently that scholars and the public have become aware of the accelerating loss of linguistic diversity around the world; consequently, the develop-ment of organised planning for survival in response to the crisis is also relatively new. Given that language planning for linguistic diversity is such a new endeavour, it is not surprising that a culture of professionalism and expertise among its practitioners is also still in the early stages of development. We have much to learn about what does and does not work when it comes to language planning in this respect, and there is also much work to be done in terms of disseminating this knowledge to those language planners, educators and activists working on the ground in indigenous communi-ties who might use it. This chapter explores the levels of training experienced and required by individuals involved in the implementation of planning interventions in the Scottish Gaelic context.
In Scotland, the development of an organised, national response to the demographic decline of Gaelic-speaking communities is very recent indeed (see, for example, Dunbar 2010 and Macleod 2008). In the last quarter of the twentieth century, as language activists became increasingly concerned about the growing crisis in Gaelic-speaking communities, various initiatives in education, in the media, and in local-government service provision, were effected aiming to re-strengthen the transmission and use of Gaelic. These early efforts, while motivated by good intentions, were nonetheless characterised by a general lack of professional expertise. In the absence of a clear understanding of the nature of the problem, and without access to state-of-the-art theory of best practice in indigenous-language education and revitalisation, these early efforts tended to be of limited efficacy (McLeod 2002). Commenting in 2001, McLeod identified a lack of professionalisation in Scottish language planning bodies as a pervasive problem:
Despite the growing institutionalization of the Gaelic movement in Scotland – an institutionalization underpinned by millions of pounds of government investment every year – very little specialist professional expertise is brought to bear on Gaelic develop-ment, a phenomenon one activist has unkindly described as ‘amateur hour’. Almost none of those steering the various Gaelic organisations have any specialist training or experience in applied linguistics or language planning, and there is relatively little awareness of theoreti-cal and analytical advances in the field of language revitalization and language planning in general […]. (McLeod 2001: 23)
The recently discovered orthorhombic allotrope of silicon, Si24, is an exciting prospective material for the future of solar energy due to a quasi-direct bandgap near 1.3 eV, coupled with the abundance and environmental stability of silicon. Synthesized via precursor Na4Si24 at high temperature and pressure (∼850 °C, 9 GPa), typical synthesis results have yielded polycrystalline samples with crystallites on the order of 20 μm. Several approaches to increase the crystal size have yielded success, including in-situ thermal spikes and refined selection of the starting materials. Microstructural analysis suggests that coherency exists between diamond silicon (d-Si) and Na4Si24. This hypothesis has led to the successful attempts at single crystal synthesis by selecting large crystals of d-Si along with metallic Na as the precursors rather than powdered and mixed precursor material. The new synthesis approach has yielded single crystals of Na4Si24 greater than 100 μm. These results represent a breakthrough in synthesis that enables further characterization and utility. The promise of Si24 for the future of solar energy generation and efficient electronics is strengthened through these advances in synthesis.
This paper discusses a pulse electroplating method for preparing copper (Cu)-coated gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons such as ethylene. Ionomer coating and air-plasma surface pre-treatments were explored as means of hydrophilizing the carbon surface to enable adhesion of electrodeposited material. The pulsed-current electrodeposition method used successfully generated copper and copper oxide micro- and nano-particles on the prepared surfaces. Copper(I) species identified on the ionomer-treated GDEs are presumed to be highly active for the selective generation of ethylene as compared to other gaseous byproducts of CO2 reduction. Conversely, copper catalysts deposited onto plasma-treated GDEs were found to have poor activity for hydrocarbon production, likely due to substantial metallic character. Of note, plasma treatment of an ionomer-treated GDE after copper plating yielded further improvements in catalytic activity and durability towards ethylene production.
Research on the cities of the Classical Greek world has traditionally focused on mapping the organisation of urban space and studying major civic or religious buildings. More recently, newer techniques such as field survey and geophysical survey have facilitated exploration of the extent and character of larger areas within urban settlements, raising questions about economic processes. At the same time, detailed analysis of residential buildings has also supported a change of emphasis towards understanding some of the functional and social aspects of the built environment as well as purely formal ones. This article argues for the advantages of analysing Greek cities using a multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework which encompasses all of these various approaches and adds to them other analytical techniques (particularly micro-archaeology). We suggest that this strategy can lead towards a more holistic view of a city, not only as a physical place, but also as a dynamic community, revealing its origins, development and patterns of social and economic activity. Our argument is made with reference to the research design, methodology and results of the first three seasons of fieldwork at the city of Olynthos, carried out by the Olynthos Project.
The adoption of the horse for chariots, wagons and riding had a major impact on human societies, but it has proved difficult to reliably identify early domesticated horses in the archaeological record. This comparative study of equine palaeopathology addresses the problem by analysing wild and domestic horses used for traction or riding. Osteological changes to the skull appear to be the result of mechanical and physiological stress from the use of horses for transport. The results are applied to archaeological examples from the Deer Stone-Khirigsuur Complex of Bronze Age Mongolia (1300–700 BC) and show that those horses were probably bridled and used for transport.
The montane inselbergs of northern Mozambique have been comparatively little-studied, yet recent surveys have shown they have a rich biodiversity with numerous endemic species. Here we present the main findings from a series of scientific expeditions to one of these inselbergs, Mt Mabu, and discuss the conservation implications. Comprehensive species lists of plants, birds, mammals and butterflies are presented. The most significant result was the discovery of a c. 7,880 ha block of undisturbed rainforest, most of it at medium altitude (900–1,400 m), a forest type that is not well represented elsewhere. It is possibly the largest continuous block of this forest type in southern Africa. To date, 10 new species (plants, mammals, reptiles and butterflies) have been confirmed from Mt Mabu, even though sampling effort for most taxonomic groups has been low. The species assemblages indicate a relatively long period of isolation and many species found are at the southern limit of their range. Conservationists are now faced with the challenge of how best to protect Mt Mabu and similar mountains in northern Mozambique, and various ways that this could be done are discussed.
European appropriations of exotic and primitive musical cultures for the development of musical modernism were paralleled by Occidentalist appropriations of Western music globally. The rise of mass-mediated popular musics and developments in recording technology over the past century served as cardinal signs of modernity in both the West and the East. This chapter explains that the exploitation of Asianness within intra-Asian popular culture has been inspired by a wide array of motivations. It focuses on examples of Chinese and Chinese diaspora popular music from the more recent past that illustrate the roles of world music and Orientalist representation in proclaiming modernity and ethnic pride for Asian and Asian American musicians. The chapter suggests that these developments increasingly proceed independently of direct Western/white intervention and many of these musicians were initially inspired by models of cross-cultural appropriation from Euro-American musics, both modernist and popular.
A baseline audit of trainees' ability to recognise Wernicke's
encephalopathy and initiate appropriate thiamine regimes in an in-patient
alcohol detoxification unit was carried out. Based on the findings, gaps
were addressed using targeted education and training, and their impact on
improving standards of managing Wernicke's encephalopathy was
The initial audit revealed that trainees' ability to recognise Wernicke's
encephalopathy and initiate thiamine was inadequate. Significant
improvement in appropriate use of treatment regime (P < 0.05) of
thiamine and the monitoring of clinical response was observed after
addressing the initial gaps through education.
Treatment of Wernicke's encephalopathy can be inadequate, given a lack of
awareness of clinical presentation and appropriate management. This can
be addressed through education and training.
The photosynthetic gas exchange capacities of early angiosperms remain enigmatic. Nevertheless, many hypotheses about the causes of early angiosperm success and how angiosperms influenced Mesozoic ecosystem function hinge on understanding the maximum capacity for early angiosperm metabolism. We applied structure-functional analyses of leaf veins and stomatal pore geometry to determine the hydraulic and diffusive gas exchange capacities of Early Cretaceous fossil leaves. All of the late Aptian—early Albian angiosperms measured possessed low vein density and low maximal stomatal pore area, indicating low leaf gas exchange capacities in comparison to modern ecologically dominant angiosperms. Gas exchange capacities for Early Cretaceous angiosperms were equivalent or lower than ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil leaf taxa from Aptian to Paleocene sediments previously identified as putative stem-lineages to Austrobaileyales and Chloranthales had the same gas exchange capacities and possibly leaf water relations of their living relatives. Our results provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that high leaf gas exchange capacity is a derived feature of later angiosperm evolution. In addition, the leaf gas exchange functions of austrobaileyoid and chloranthoid fossils support the hypothesis that comparative research on the biology of living basal angiosperm lineages reveals genuine signals of Early Cretaceous angiosperm ecophysiology.
A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much the same as before: a local big man buried looking out to sea. Modern analytical techniques can create a person more real, more human and more securely anchored in history. This research team shows how.
Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) emitting near-infrared (NIR) light have many potential applications, yet the efficiency of these devices remains very low, typically ˜0.1% or less. Here we report efficiency NIR OLEDs based on two fluorescent donor-acceptor-donor oligomers and a phosphorescent Pt-containing organometallic complex. External quantum efficiencies in the range of 0.5–3.8% with emission peak ranging from 700 to 890 nm have been achieved.