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Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
To assess the folate and vitamin B12 status of a group of Vietnamese women of reproductive age and to estimate the rate of neural tube defects (NTD) based on red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations.
Design and subjects
A representative sample of non-pregnant women (15–49 years) living in Hanoi City (n 244) and Hai Duong Province (n 245).
RBC folate, plasma vitamin B12 and plasma holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), a sensitive indicator of vitamin B12 status.
Mean (95 % CI) concentrations of RBC folate, plasma B12 and plasma holoTC were 856 (837, 876) nmol/l, 494 (475, 513) pmol/l and 78 (74, 82) pmol/l, respectively. Only 3 % and 4 % of women had plasma B12 and holoTC concentrations indicative of deficiency. No woman had an RBC folate concentration indicative of deficiency (<317 nmol/l). Only 47 % of women had an RBC folate concentration ≥905 nmol/l. Accordingly, we predict the NTD rate in these regions of Vietnam to be 14·7 (14·2, 15·1) per 10 000 pregnancies.
There was no evidence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency among this population of Vietnamese women. However, suboptimal folate status may be placing three out of five women at increased risk of NTD. Reductions in NTD rates are still possible and women would benefit from additional folic acid during the periconceptional period from either supplements or fortified foods.
The SWEEPS (Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search) program was aimed at detecting planets around stars in the Galactic bulge, not only to determine their physical properties, but also to determine whether the properties of planets found in the solar neighborhood, such as their frequency and the metallicity dependence, also hold for the planets in the Galactic bulge. We used the Hubble Space Telescope to monitor 180,000 F, G, K, and M dwarfs in the Galactic bulge continuously for 7 days in order to look for transiting planets. We discovered 16 candidate transiting extrasolar planets with periods of 0.6 to 4.2 days, including a possible new class of ultra-short period planets (USPPs) with P < 1 day. The facts that (i) the coverage in the monitoring program is continuous, (ii) most of the stars are at a known distance (in the Galctic bulge), (iii) monitoring was carried out in 2 passbands, and (iv) the images have high spatial resolution, were crucial in minimizing and estimating the false positive rates. We estimate that at least 45% of the candidates are genuine planets. Radial velocity observations of the two brightest host stars further support the planetary nature of the transiting companions. These results suggest that the planet frequency in the Galactic bulge is similar to that in the solar neighborhood. They also suggest that higher metallicity favors planet formation even in the Galactic bulge. The USPPs occur only around low-mass stars which may suggest that close-in planets around higher-mass stars are irradiately evaporated, or that planets are able to migrate to and survive in close-in orbits only around such old and low-mass stars.
A glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotype was confirmed in central Georgia. In the field, glyphosate applied to 5- to 13-cm-tall Palmer amaranth at three times the normal use rate of 0.84 kg ae ha−1 controlled this biotype only 17%. The biotype was controlled 82% by glyphosate at 12 times the normal use rate. In the greenhouse, I50 values (rate necessary for 50% inhibition) for visual control and shoot fresh weight, expressed as percentage of the nontreated, were 8 and 6.2 times greater, respectively, with the resistant biotype compared with a known glyphosate-susceptible biotype. Glyphosate absorption and translocation and the number of chromosomes did not differ between biotypes. Shikimate was detected in leaf tissue of the susceptible biotype treated with glyphosate but not in the resistant biotype.
When can one find a smooth transformation of a random variable so that the transformed random variable has a specified distribution? If the random variable is continuous, the solution is elementary; if it is discrete, it may be impossible. In this paper, a simple method is given of transforming a random variable in a smooth way to match a specified number of quantiles of an arbitrary distribution. The problem arose from a request for a simple way of transforming marks given in school assessment so that the distribution of transformed marks matches the distribution of external assessment.
Gilliland et al. (2000) have reported HST photometric observations of 34000 stars in the globular cluster 47 Tuc, showing an absence of close-in giant planets in that cluster relative to their frequency in the solar neighborhood. Here we describe the methods of time-series analysis that were used to search the 47 Tuc data for transits by giant extrasolar planets, and the means by which these methods were validated.
Criteria are determined for the variance to mean ratio to be greater than one (over-dispersed) or less than one (under-dispersed). This is done for random variables which are functions of a Markov chain in continuous time, and for the counts in a simple point process on the line. The criteria for the Markov chain are in terms of the infinitesimal generator and those for the point process in terms of the conditional intensity. Examples include a conjecture of Faddy (1994). The case of time-reversible point processes is particularly interesting, and here underdispersion is not possible. In particular, point processes which arise from Markov chains which are time-reversible, have finitely many states and are irreducible are always overdispersed.
In 1979, Melamed proved that, in an open migration process, the absence of ‘loops' is necessary and sufficient for the equilibrium flow along a link to be a Poisson process. In this paper, we prove approximation theorems with the same flavour: the difference between the equilibrium flow along a link and a Poisson process with the same rate is bounded in terms of expected numbers of loops. The proofs are based on Stein's method, as adapted for bounds on the distance of the distribution of a point process from a Poisson process in Barbour and Brown (1992b). Three different distances are considered, and illustrated with an example consisting of a system of tandem queues with feedback. The upper bound on the total variation distance of the process grows linearly with time, and a lower bound shows that this can be the correct order of approximation.
Ball and Donnelly (1987) announced a result giving circumstances in which there is positive or negative correlation between the death times in a non-linear, Markovian death process. A proof is provided here, based on results concerning the distribution of optional random variables in terms of their conditional intensities.
Recent work in thermal stress induced voiding in passivated lines has focussed on the isothermal, quasi-steady state growth of existing voids. In this work, the transient growth and shrinkage of voids during the thermal cycling of narrow, passivated lines was studied. Analysis of experimental data for passivated lines demonstrates the quick buildup and evolution of a backstress at the grain boundary during heating and cooling. This backstress greatly reduces the driving force for void growth at higher temperatures and must be accounted for in stress induced void growth models for the case of appreciably varying temperatures in short time scales.