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Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood.
We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors.
We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy.
This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).
This paper discusses a pulse electroplating method for developing tin (Sn)-decorated gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to formate. The pulse-plated Sn electrodes achieved current densities up to 388 mA/cm2, more than two-fold greater than conventionally prepared electrodes (150 mA/cm2), both at a formate selectivity of 80%. Optical and microscopic analyses indicate improvements in deposition parameters could further enhance performance by reducing the catalyst particle size.
This work provides new insights into human responses to and perceptions of sea-level rise at a time when the landscapes of north-west Europe were radically changing. These issues are investigated through a case study focused on the Channel Islands. We report on the excavation of two sites, Canal du Squez in Jersey and Lihou (GU582) in Guernsey, and the study of museum collections across the Channel Islands. We argue that people were drawn to this area as a result of the dynamic environmental processes occurring and the opportunities these created. The evidence suggests that the area was a particular focus during the Middle Mesolithic, when Guernsey and Alderney were already islands and while Jersey was a peninsula of northern France. Insularisation does not appear to have created a barrier to occupation during either the Middle or Final Mesolithic, indicating the appearance of lifeways increasingly focused on maritime voyaging and marine resources from the second half of the 9th millennium BC onwards.
The lowest frequency band (70–450 MHz) of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will consist of sparse aperture arrays grouped into geographically localised patches or stations. Signals from thousands of antennas in each station will be beamformed to produce station beams which form the inputs for the central correlator. Two-stage beamforming within stations can reduce SKA-low signal processing load and costs, but has not been previously explored for the irregular station layouts now favoured in radio astronomy arrays. This paper illustrates the effects of two-stage beamforming on sidelobes and effective area, for two representative station layouts (regular and irregular gridded tiles on an irregular station). The performance is compared with a single-stage, irregular station. The inner sidelobe levels do not change significantly between layouts, but the more distant sidelobes are affected by the tile layouts; regular tile creates diffuse, but regular, grating lobes. With very sparse arrays, the station effective area is similar between layouts. At lower frequencies, the regular tile significantly reduces effective area, hence sensitivity. The effective area is highest for a two-stage irregular station, but it requires a larger station extent than the other two layouts. Although there are cost benefits for stations with two-stage beamforming, we conclude that more accurate station modelling and SKA-low configuration specifications are required before design finalisation.
British police officers authorized to carry firearms may need to make judgments about the severity of injury of individuals or the relative priority of clinical need of a group of injured patients in tactical and non-tactical situations. Most of these officers receive little or no medical training beyond basic first aid to enable them to make these clinical decisions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of triage decision-making of firearms-trained police officers with and without printed decision-support materials.
Eighty-two police firearms officers attending a tactical medicine course (FASTAid) were recruited to the study. Data were collected using a paper-based triage exercise that contained brief, clinical details of 20 adults and 10 children. Subjects were asked to assign a clinical priority of immediate or priority 1 (P1); urgent or priority 2 (P2); delayed or priority 3 (P3); or dead, to each casualty. Then, they were provided with decision-making materials, but were not given any instruction as to how these materials should be used. Subjects then completed a second triage exercise, identical to the first, except this time using the decision-support materials.
Data were analyzed using mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance. This allowed comparisons to be made between the scores for Exercise 1 (no decision-support material) and Exercise 2 (with decision-support material). It also allowed any differences between those students with previous triage training and those without previous training to be explored.
The use of triage decision-making materials resulted in a significant increase in correct responses (p <0.001). Improvement in accuracy appears to result mainly from a reduction in the extent of under-triage. There were significant differences (p <0.05) between those who had received previous triage training and those who had not, with those having received triage training doing slightly better.
It appears that significant improvements in the accuracy of triage decision-making by police firearms officers can be achieved with the use of appropriate triage decision-support materials. Training may offer additional improvements in accuracy, but this improvement is likely to be small when decision-support materials are provided. With basic clinical skills and appropriate decision-support materials, it is likely that the police officer can make accurate triage decisions in a multiple-casualty scenario or make judgments of the severity of injury of a given individual in both tactical and non-tactical situations.
For the last 50 years the site of Star Carr has retained a role of considerable importance within Mesolithic studies. Recent archaeological and palaeoenvironmental survey of the Vale of Pickering (Schadla-Hall 1987; 1988; 1989; Lane & Schadla-Hall forthcoming) permits an understanding of the regional context of Star Carr and indicates the site itself now needs to be re-evaluated. This paper will focus on the lithic evidence recovered during the recent excavations and field survey in order to explore the nature of peoples' engagement with the landscape of the Vale of Pickering during the Early Mesolithic.
Authenticity is frequently seen as crucial in archaeology. In this paper, we examine the nature of authenticity and question by implication whether so much attention should be given to determining the actual age and thus the genuineness of archaeological objects. We show that numbers of authenticated objects are potentially fakes. There is an acceptance that many archaeological sites and reconstructions are not actually really old, although the acceptability of this view depends on one's flexibility towards the concept of authenticity. It is clear that the public does not necessarily put the same value on genuineness as do archaeologists. We suggest that certain aspects of the past have always been a potentially renewable resource. We suggest that a more relaxed approach to genuineness and authenticity is acceptable today and is already accepted by the public as consumers of the past.