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A novel CBT-based intervention, tailored for young people, was developed in response to concerns about traditional diagnostically based approaches. Psychology of Emotions workshops use a normative approach to emotional difficulty instead of a diagnostic framework.
To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of Psychology of Emotions workshops within an IAPT service for young people aged 16–25 years.
This was a mixed-methods study, evaluating routinely collected self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and qualitative feedback forms. The main outcomes were rates of attendance, change in symptom severity, and participant views of the intervention.
From January to September 2016, 595 young people were invited to attend the Psychology of Emotions workshops, of whom 350 (58.8%) attended at least one session. Young people who attended all six sessions (8.1%) experienced significant reductions in self-reported anxiety (d = .72) and depression (d = .58) and 35.5% were classified as recovered at completion. Those who attended at least two sessions (41.3%) reported smaller but significant improvements in anxiety (d = .42) and depression (d = .45); 22.0% were classified as recovered at the last session attended. Participants provided largely positive feedback about the intervention.
Psychology of Emotions is a promising treatment option, delivered outside of a diagnostic framework, for young people with mild to moderate mental health difficulties seen within IAPT services. Better understanding reasons for non-attendance might enable the intervention to be made accessible to more young people.
The Norfolk Youth Service was created in 2012 in response to calls to redesign mental health services to better meet the needs of young people. The new service model transcends traditional boundaries by creating a single, ‘youth friendly’ service for young people aged 14–25 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition to this new model on patterns of referral, acceptance and service use. We analysed routinely collected data on young people aged 14–25 years referred for secondary mental healthcare in Norfolk before and after implementation of the youth mental health service. The number of referrals, their age and gender, proportion of referrals accepted and average number of service contacts per referral by age pre- and post-implementation were compared.
Referrals increased by 68% following implementation of the new service model, but the proportion of referrals accepted fell by 27 percentage points. Before implementation of the youth service, there was a clear discrepancy between the peak age of referral and the age of those seen by services. Following implementation, service contacts were more equitable across ages, with no marked discontinuity at age 18 years.
Our findings suggest that the transformation of services may have succeeded in reducing the ‘cliff edge’ in access to mental health services at the transition to adulthood. However, the sharp rise in referrals and reduction in the proportion of referrals accepted highlights the importance of considering possible unintended consequences of new service models.
The co-operative and mutual enterprise business model represents a unique type of organisation that has a dual purpose focused on both economic and social goals. For nearly two centuries it has played an important role in economic development, job creation and addressing market failures. However, despite its potential importance to economic development it has been largely ignored within the mainstream economics and management literature. This paper provides an overview of the nature of the co-operative and mutual enterprise business model and also proposes a business model framework or ‘canvas’ that can be used for research, teaching and strategic analysis.
Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:319-328)
Background: Individuals with visible differences can experience social anxiety in relation to their appearance. Social skills-based psychosocial interventions have to date shown only limited effectiveness at addressing their concerns. Aims: To incorporate user perspectives in the development of an online psychosocial intervention, known as Face IT. Method and Results: Study one consisted of a needs assessment with 12 individuals with a visible difference and six health professionals in order to identify the difficulties experienced by those with visible difference and obtain feedback on the proposed content of Face IT. The findings demonstrated support for the social skills model and the use of an online intervention. Study two consisted of an empirical usability evaluation of Face IT with 14 potential users and 14 health professionals. Based on feedback from the participants, changes were made to the graphics and navigation of the programme. The clinical content has been made more acceptable. Conclusions: The findings indicate support for the importance of social skills-based psychosocial interventions for addressing the needs of those with a visible difference, and have allowed modifications to be made to Face IT ahead of a randomized controlled trial of effectiveness.
Heroin addiction, being a chronic condition, can have a devastating impact on carers of addicts. However, the information and support needs of carers often go unrecognised and unaddressed. ‘Carers' clinics’ are one such information-sharing and support group for carers of heroin addicts. This simple yet innovative service provision has been enthusiastically recieved by carers and has been running effectively since April 2007. We believe this scheme can be replicated across other services.
Homo erectus leaving Africa a million years ago ought to have passed through the area that is now Turkey, and the authors report a first certain sighting of human activity of this date in a lignite quarry near Konya. The remains of rhino, hippo and horse were found with 135 modified quartz implements in layers dated by palaeomagnetic reversal to between 0.78 and 0.99 million years ago.
On Tongatapu the central place of the rising kingdom of Tonga developed in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries AD. Marked out as a monumental area with a rock-cut water-carrying ditch, it soon developed as the site of a sequence of megalithic tombs, in parallel with the documented expansion of the maritime chiefdom. The results of investigations into these structures were achieved with minimum intervention and disturbance on the ground, since the place remains sacred and in use.
Richard P. Reading, Denver Zoological Foundation, 2900 East 23rd Avenue, Denver, CO 80205, USA,
Lauren McCain, Department of Political Science, University of Colorado, Campus Box, 333 Boulder, CO 80309, USA,
Tim W. Clark, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 205, Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA,
Brian J. Miller, Denver Zoological Foundation, 2900, East 23rd Avenue, Denver, CO 80205, USA
In 1999 the US Fish and Wildlife Service recommended designating the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as warranted for listing as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act, but precluded from such listing by other, higher priority species (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). This ‘warranted, but precluded’ finding flamed a management controversy that had been brewing for years and instigated a flurry of activity by agricultural interests, government agencies, conservation non-governmental organizations (NGOs), scientists and others. Stakeholders became polarized between those who want to conserve prairie dogs and those who want to limit them. Although ecologists have noted for decades the huge decline of black-tailed prairie dogs, as recently as 10–15 years ago the status of prairie dogs and their management was largely neglected and therefore not controversial. How did this issue move to the forefront of conservation controversies in this country? In this chapter we use a policy sciences approach (Lasswell and McDougal 1992) to describe and analyse the controversy surrounding prairie dog conservation and management by examining the context of the issue, the key stakeholders, and the processes being used to understand and address the problem. We end with recommendations to improve prospects for black-tailed prairie dog recovery and conservation.
THE CONTEXT OF PRAIRIE DOG CONSERVATION: ORIENTING TO THE ‘PROBLEM’
Fully understanding the challenge of black-tailed prairie dog recovery requires a comprehensive assessment of the context.
To achieve long-term viability of hunted puma (Puma concolor) populations (even at historically low densities), we propose a management plan based on the metapopulation concept that designates source areas (closed to hunting) and sink areas (open to hunting). We use 11 years of data from Idaho and Utah to demonstrate how the proposed management plan might be implemented. We use minimum and maximum densities of resident animals to calculate minimum and maximum effective population sizes, neighbourhood areas (regional management units) and usable habitat within the units. We designate sink and source areas based on their size, accessibility to hunters and juxtaposition. We show that closing 63% of puma habitat to hunting would ensure long-term puma population viability while permitting traditional hunting levels in other areas. This system could be adapted to existing state (and interstate) hunting management units, and we outline several steps by which wildlife agencies might set up a process (including public participation) to manage puma hunting.
There can be little doubt that joined-up government (JUG) is one of New Labour's big ideas, alongside their new managerialism. Since New Labour's initial election victory in 1997 and their subsequent second term in 2001, significant resources have been spent in developing ‘joined-up’ strategies for social policy. This ‘big idea’ stretches from Cabinet level with new groups such as the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) and the Performance and Innovation Unit (PIU) and extends into every single social policy sector with area-based initiatives, such as Health Action, Education Action and Employment Zones, and encompasses agents from all sectors, public, private and voluntary. New Labour state that by ensuring policy making is more joined-up and strategic, social and public policy can be more ‘inclusive and integrated’ (White Paper, 1999: 6).
As educators, we are being encouraged to use adult learning theory when organising training. This paper describes the development of a course originally for trainees in psychiatry and the shift from a traditional model of training to one that incorporates new approaches to learning (Spencer & Jordan, 1999). We describe the move away from a didactic delivery of information to a multiprofessional, skills-based approach to the training of general psychiatric trainees.