To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Abstract. Two distinct classes of stem cell lines can be derived from the mouse blastocyst: embryonic stem (ES) cells and trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into all embryonic lineages and extraembryonic mesoderm in chimeras, but are strictly excluded from the trophoblast lineage and rarely contribute to extraembryonic endoderm. In contrast, TS cells have the capacity to populate all trophoblast lineages, but are unable to make embryonic tissues or extraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm. A novel class of blastocyst-derived lines representative of the primitive endoderm lineage have been derived and characterised. Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cell lines contribute to derivatives of the primitive endoderm in vivo, but not to epiblast or trophoblast tissues. The signals required to maintain XEN cells in culture are not well characterised. However, the signals and critical transcription factors required for maintenance of ES and TS cell cultures have been partially determined. Embryonic stem cells require signalling through at least two pathways. The first is activated by leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and transduced through the cell-surface receptor, gp130, and the intracellular protein, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The second pathway leads to activation of Smad proteins, which may be mediated by several factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In contrast, TS cells require signalling from fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.