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Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) that, when severe, requires corrective surgery or other catheter-based intervention in the first year of life. Due to its rarity, risk factors for Ebstein anomaly remain largely unknown. Using national data, we examined 18 potential risk factors for Ebstein anomaly.
Using 1997–2011 data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, we calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for paternal age, maternal socio-demographics, reproductive history, and modifiable risk factors, and infant characteristics reported by mothers of 135 Ebstein anomaly cases and 11,829 controls.
Mothers of Ebstein anomaly cases had 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 9.5) times the odds of reporting a family history of CHD compared with mothers of controls. Ebstein anomaly was associated with maternal second-hand cigarette smoke exposure at home (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.1, 4.4]), but not maternal cigarette smoking (odds ratio = 1.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.1]). Odds were elevated, but the 95% confidence interval included 1.0, for maternal marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.8]) and paternal age ≥40 years at delivery (odds ratio = 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.5]).
Maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke at home and a family history of CHD were associated with elevated odds of Ebstein anomaly. Genetic analyses could clarify the potential heritability of Ebstein anomaly.
Administrative databases are often used for congenital cardiac disease research and evaluation, with little validation of the accuracy of the diagnostic codes.
Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program surveillance records were reviewed and classified using a version of the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Using this clinical nomenclature as the referent, we report the sensitivity and false positive fraction (1 – positive predictive value) of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
We identified 4918 infants and foetuses with congenital cardiac disease from the surveillance records. Using only the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, there were 280 records with tetralogy, 317 records with transposition, and 192 records with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Based on the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, 330 records were classified as tetralogy, 163 records as transposition, and 179 records as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The sensitivity of International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes was 83% for tetralogy, 100% for transposition, and 95% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The false positive fraction was 2% for tetralogy, 49% for transposition, and 11% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Analyses based on International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes may have substantial misclassification of congenital heart disease. Isolating the major defect is difficult, and certain codes do not differentiate between variants that are clinically and developmentally different.
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