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The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
We study the gradient superconvergence of bilinear finite volume element (FVE) solving the elliptic problems. First, a superclose weak estimate is established for the bilinear form of the FVE method. Then, we prove that the gradient approximation of the FVE solution has the superconvergence property:
where denotes the average gradient on elements containing point P and S is the set of optimal stress points composed of the mesh points, the midpoints of edges and the centers of elements.
Microstructural and property evolution of 1050 commercial pure aluminum subjected to high-strain-rate deformation (1.2–2.3 × 103 s−1) by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and subsequent annealing treatment were investigated. The as-deformed and their annealed samples at 373–523 K were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness tests. TEM observations reveal that the as-deformed sample is mainly composed of a lamellar structure, whose transverse/longitudinal average subgrain/cell sizes are 293 and 694 nm, respectively. The initial coarse grains are refined significantly. The initial lamellar grain structures are subdivided into pancake-shaped subgrains due to a gradual transition by triple junction motion at 473 K, and then a dramatic microstructural coarsening is observed at 523 K. It is suggested that annealing behavior of this dynamic loading structure is better considered as a continuous process of grain coarsening or continuous recovery.
To study the molecular environment and feedback of Herbig Ae/Be (HAB) stars, We mapped four HAB stars' nearby region with CO (1-0) and its isotopes by the 13.7m millimeter telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. The results show that new stars are forming in the nearby molecular cores and HAB stars give them an extra pressure. On the other hand, HAB stars are the main heat source of their surrounding gas.
We study the enhancement of accuracy, by means of the convolution post-processing technique, for discontinuous Galerkin(DG) approximations to hyperbolic problems. Previous investigations have focused on the superconvergence obtained by this technique for elliptic, time-dependent hyperbolic and convection-diffusion problems. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to extend this post-processing technique to the hyperbolic problems written as the Friedrichs’ systems by using an upwind-like DG method. We prove that the L2-error of the DG solution is of order k+1/2, and further the post-processed DG solution is of order 2k+1 if Qk-polynomials are used. The key element of our analysis is to derive the (2k+1)-order negative norm error estimate. Numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the theoretical analysis.
In this work, we succeeded in synthesis of spinel LiMn2O4 via a facile self-template method. The product displays a micro-/nanohybrid structure. Nanoparticles/plates act as the primary nanoblocks to build the secondary microarchitecture. There is the open space between the nanoblocks and the void space between the secondary structures. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior rate capability and high-rate cycleability when contrasted with its solid counterpart. The initial discharge capacity is 126 mAh/g at 0.1 C, 110 mAh/g at 10 C, and 84 mAh/g at 20 C. The discharge capacity retention of about 80% is obtained after 800 cycles at 10 C. The high capacity and excellent cycling life of the material shows its potential for application as high-power batteries. The improved rate capability and cycleability can be attributed to its secondary structure that can facilitate fast Li-insertion/extraction and buffer the volume expansion/contraction upon cycling.
The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at ∼5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (Liu et al. 2010).
Vanadium-beard bone coal is one of important vanadium resources in China. to extract vanadium tailings from Stone coal is prduced after extracted vanadium from stone coal through the roasting, leaching and other processes. About 120-150 tons of tailings will be produced in extracting 1 ton of vanadium pentoxide. A lot of tailings that are willfully piled up have caused serious environmental pollution and wasting of resources; it is therefore necessary to realize its resource utilization. This study increases the activity of vanadium tailings by means of alkali fusion, and then uses different alkali activators to react with vanadium tailings so that geopolymer with high value added is produced. Sample of geopolymer is acquired from mixture containing vanadium tailings, alkali activators, water and a little sodium aluminate through compression-molding process under 20MPa pressure. After cured in room temperature for three days, the maximum compressive strength of the sample can reach 36.2MPa. XRD analysis indicates: quartz, the major crystal phase in vanadium tailings is decomposed and the activity of vanadium tailings is heightened. FTIR and SEM analyses show: structural change having important impact on the mechanical strength of geopolymer occurred during the process of vanadium tailings generating geopolymer.
The distribution of alloying elements and the corresponding structural evolution of Mn–Sb alloys in magnetic field gradients were investigated in detail. It was found that a high magnetic field gradient could control the distribution of solute element in the alloys during the solidification process and therefore resulted in the coexistence of both primary MnSb and Sb phases or the aggregation of the primary MnSb with a continuous change in morphology. The positions where these primary phases located depended on the direction of field gradient. The control of the solute element distribution by a high magnetic field gradient was realized through the magnetic buoyancy force that could drive the migration of Mn element in the melt, originating from the difference in the magnetic susceptibility between Mn and Sb. The effectiveness of this control depends on the alloy composition, specimen dimension, cooling rate, and |BdB/dz| value.
Mn-90.8 wt%Sb alloys were solidified without and with high magnetic fields to investigate the effects of high magnetic fields on the structure evolution of the alloys. It was found that there were only MnSb/Sb eutectics without any primary phase in the alloy at 0 T, whereas a small amount of primary MnSb dendrites appeared in the MnSb/Sb eutectic matrix when the magnetic flux density was 4.4 T. In magnetic fields of 6.6, 8.8, and 11.5 T, both of two primary phases, i.e., MnSb and Sb, occurred in the matrix. In addition, the volume fraction of these two primary phases increased with increasing magnetic flux density. In magnetic fields of 8.8 and 11.5 T, primary MnSb dendrites aligned parallel to the magnetic field direction and gathered at the edge of the specimens. In contrast, primary Sb dendrites gathered in the center region of the specimens.
This study is concerned with the investigation of the structural evolution occurring during isothermal annealing of an Mn-89.7 wt%Sb alloy in a high magnetic field in the semisolid state. The alloy specimens were isothermally annealed without and with an 11.5-T magnetic field for various annealing times. With the application of the magnetic field, the average characteristic radius of the primary MnSb particles increased with increasing annealing time. The primary MnSb particles were oriented with their c-plane parallel to the imposed field direction. Furthermore, the primary MnSb particles were found to align along the field direction and form chainlike structures eventually. These phenomena were attributed to the attraction and coalescence of the particles induced by the dipole–dipole interactions among them.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
The metabolism of flavone C-glucosides and p-coumaric acid from antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) in rats is discussed systematically in the present study. Following single oral administration of AOB, p-coumaric acid was detected in plasma but not in gastrointestinal tract extracts and faeces, and the corresponding absorption pharmacokinetic curve at different time points showed a prolonged elimination phase with p-coumaric acid being detected in the kidneys and excreted as its original form (1·80 (sd 0·24) % and 1·90 (sd 0·26) % at 12 and 24 h, respectively). However, the four flavone C-glucosides orientin, homoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin were poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. More than 50 % recovery of flavone C-glucosides was determined at 12 h and faeces containing these four analytes (21·23 (sd 1·92) %) were excreted at 24 h. These data suggested that the effective time these compounds were in the colon was long enough so that they could exert their antioxidant activity and scavenge free radicals. Besides the excretion of the original forms, moieties of the flavone C-glucosides were hydrolysed by deglycosylation and the opening of the heterocyclic C ring. Some small molecules such as phloroglucinol (PG), hydrocaffeic acid (HCA) and phloretic acid (PA) were detected and identified as metabolites of the flavone C-glucosides. In the present work, we compared the metabolic fate of flavone C-glucosides to that of flavone O-glucosides in rats, and evaluated the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of flavone C-glucosides in AOB on their metabolism for the first time.
A novel photochromic complex composed of Keggin-type tungstophosphate acid (PW12) and polyacrylamide (PAM) was prepared. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric study, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), ultraviolet–visiblea bsorption spectra (UV-VIS), and electron resonance spectra (ESR) were used to investigate the surface topography, composition, and photochromic behavior and mechanism of the film. Under UV irradiation, the film was reduced photochemically to yield a blue species. AFM images indicated that surface topography of the polymer matrix changed after adding PW12. FTIR results showed that the Keggin geometry of PW12 was still preserved inside the matrix, and a charge-transfer bridge was built between PW12 and PAM by hydrogen bonding. The characteristic signal of W (V) and the formation of a radical signal in ESR spectra indicated that PAM was a hydrogen donor and the photoreduced process was in accordance with the radical mechanism.The diffusion of oxygen in the polymeric network plays an important role in the reversibility of photochromism.
A series of photochromic sol-gel films are prepared through entrapping tungsten heteropolyoxometallates (PW12O403−, SiW12O404−) and molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate (PMo12O403−) into a kind of inorganic–organic matrix cohydrolyzed from tetraethylorthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The films show reversible photochromicity. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films change from colorless to blue. Then, bleaching occurs when the films are in contact with air or O2 in the dark. The Keggin-type polyanions interact with R–NH3+ cations strongly, and thus disperse uniformly in the sol-gel matrix, as proved by Fourier transform infrared spectra and x-ray diffraction. The molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate sol-gel film has higher photochromic efficiency and much slower bleaching than its counterparts of tungsten heteropolyoxometallate. A charge-transfer model which is supported by electron spin resonance and related literature [T. Yamase, Chem. Rev. 98, 307, (1998)] is put forth to explain the above experimental results.
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