Twinned silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) reinforced Si3N4–SiOC composites were successfully fabricated through a joint process of three-dimensional printing (3DP), direct nitridation, and polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP). 3DP and PIP were both addictive manufacturing processes, enabling the near net shape fabrication and microstructure designing of Si3N4–SiOC. With the increase of the PIP cycle number, the pores of Si3N4 were mostly filled with polymer-derived ceramics-silicon oxycarbide (containing SiC NWs and free carbons), which led to the increase of electrical conductivity of Si3N4–SiOC composites. With the increase of SiOC ceramics, the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of Si3N4–SiOC composites increased from 2 dB to 35 dB, in which the absorption shielding effectiveness increased to 27 dB. The flexural strength of Si3N4–SiOC composites reached 63 MPa when the content of SiOC ceramics was 50.1 wt%. It is indicated that Si3N4–SiOC ceramics are a promising electromagnetic shielding and structural material.