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To study the association of fish and fish-liver oil consumption across the lifespan with CHD later in life among Icelandic women, with special emphasis on the effects of consumption in adolescence.
Prevalence association study. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of CHD according to fish or fish-liver oil exposure. Models were adjusted for age, education, concurrent diet and other known risk factors.
The study was nested within the AGES-Reykjavik Study, conducted in Reykjavik, Iceland.
Participants were 3326 women aged 66–96 years, with available information on CHD status at entry to the study and information on fish and fish-liver oil consumption during midlife and adolescence. Dietary habits were assessed retrospectively using a validated FFQ.
CHD was identified in 234 (7·9 %) women. Compared with women with no intake of fish-liver oil in adolescence or midlife, women who consumed fish-liver oil at least three times weekly in adolescence or in midlife had a decreased risk of CHD (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·85 and OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·50, 0·94, respectively). No associations were observed between fish intake (>2 portions/week v. ≤2 portions/week) in adolescence or midlife and CHD in this population with high fish intake.
Fish-liver oil consumption, from early life, may reduce the risk of CHD in older women. Lifelong nutrition may be of importance in the prevention of CHD in older women.
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