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The World Health Organization’s (WHO) minimum standards are used to verify Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) internationally. The National Critical Care and Trauma Response Center (NCCTRC) was one of the first few EMT 2 verified teams globally.
The NCCTRC aims to innovate and provide leadership in the provision of best practice clinical care in the EMT 2 setting in disaster-affected countries.
The NCCTRC developed a clinical governance framework and committee with a view of improving practice in the deployed environment. A gap analysis against the Australian National Standards was done and a decision was made to proceed with accreditation against the ACHS EQUIP 6 framework.
The process of accreditation required a self-assessment that identified gaps in our guidelines and care processes thereby leading to innovative projects to meet the criterion in a sustainable way for the deployed field hospital environment. The NCCTRC has developed adapted clinical tools to manage pressure injury, falls risk, handover, hand hygiene, audits, and consumer feedback.
The deployed field hospital environment can meet national accreditation standards for clinical care. The WHO minimum standards were introduced in 2013 and serve as a marker of the minimum requirements in the field. The challenge is to do better than the minimum. This study demonstrated that it is possible to adapt hospital accreditation standards to the field environment and provide a higher, safer quality of care to affected populations. EMT teams should maintain their clinical care standards from their home environment wherever possible in the field hospital environment. Striving to provide the best and safest care is the duty of care for vulnerable populations.
Since the introduction of semiconductor detectors with sufficient energy resolution to resolve K-alpha X-rays from the K-beta X-rays for first row transition metals, there have been several attempts (1,2) to replace traditional detector systems (scintillation detector/graphite monochromator or proportional counter/nickel filter) in X-ray diffraction with semiconductor detectors. The goal of these experiments was to increase the total system detection efficiency by combining the K-beta discrimination and X-ray detection into a single operation. These early attempts showed that the semiconductor detector based system was more efficient, however, the problem of large dead-time losses hampered development in this area.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a VW-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program (Destination Rehab) as an extension of a face-to-face conventional CR program. We hypothesized that a VW-based CR program could be successfully implemented as an extension of conventional CR and would have high acceptability among cardiac patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We recruited 30 adult cardiac patients (10/site) hospitalized at Mayo Clinic Hospitals in Rochester, MN, Jacksonville, FL or Scottsdale, AZ with a diagnosis for CR (eg, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)). Other inclusion criteria included at least 1 modifiable, lifestyle risk factor target: sedentary lifestyle (< 3 hours physical activity (PA)/week), unhealthy diet (< 5 servings fruits and vegetables/day) or current smoking (>1 year). Patients participated in an 8-week, health education program using a VW platform from a prior proof-of-concept study and provided intervention usability, usefulness and satisfaction feedback. We assessed cardiovascular (CV) health behaviors (diet, PA) and risk factors (eg, blood pressure (BP), lipids) at baseline and immediate post-intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 30 patients enrolled (mean age; 59 years; 50% women; 65% <college graduate; 32% annual household income <$50,000), 28 (98%) completed the study. The majority (64%) were enrolled in conventional CR with a high session completion rate (median 36 sessions, interquartile range 8-36). The most common CR indication was PCI (68%). There were statistically significant improvements in PA from baseline to post-intervention: vigorous PA, +10.7 (SD 11.7) minutes/day (p = 0.05) and flexibility exercises +0.9 (SD 0.9) days/week for men (p=0.05). There were favorable trends in risk factors: systolic BP (−6.8 mmHg, SD 29.8), total cholesterol (−31.6 mg/dL, SD 46.2) and LDL (−26 mg/dL, SD 44.8) from baseline to post-intervention, although not statistically significant. The majority reported that they would continue to use VW as a resource (76%) and agreed/strongly agreed that the program improved their heart health knowledge (86%) and assisted with adapting healthier lifestyle (100%). Overall, the VW CR program received a rating of 8 (scale 0-10). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: VW-based CR program is a feasible, highly acceptable and innovative platform to influence health behaviors and CV risk and can increase accessibility to disadvantaged populations with higher CVD burdens.
The low demand for immediate annuities at retirement has been a long-standing puzzle. We show that a hyperbolic discount model can explain this behaviour and results in the attractiveness of long-term deferred annuities. With a set of benchmark assumptions, we find that retirees would be willing to pay a much higher price than the actuarial fair price for annuities with longer deferred periods. Moreover, if governments were to introduce a pre-commitment device which requires pensioners to make annuitisation decisions around 10 years before retirement, the take up rate of annuities could become higher.
It has been suggested that the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies is exacerbated by concomitant gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to assess the risk incurred by twin pregnancy and by a diagnosis of GDM, separately, on the development of poor perinatal outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all pregnant women at a tertiary center between 2016 and 2017. The impact of GDM and twin pregnancies on perinatal outcomes — birth weight above the 90th centile for gestational age, cesarean delivery, clinical neonatal hypoglycemia, and premature delivery (before 37 weeks’ gestation) — was assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, 13,527 women were eligible for the study; 11,915 were uncomplicated singleton pregnancies; 1379 of these had GDM; 194 were twin pregnancies, and 39 of these had GDM. Univariate analyses showed that twin pregnancies were associated with a higher risk of all perinatal outcomes except macrosomia. In the multivariate analyses, twin pregnancy was a much higher predictor of cesarean delivery (OR 8.40, 95% CI [6.25, 11.49], p < .0001) and preterm birth (OR 58.82, 95% CI [31.25, 125], p < .0001) compared to GDM but GDM was a higher predictor of neonatal hypoglycemia (OR 4.87, 95% CI [3.74, 6.29], p < .0001). Twin pregnancy is more strongly associated with all adverse perinatal outcomes except macrosomia. GDM does not increase risk of adverse perinatal outcomes except for neonatal hypoglycemia.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Little is known about terrestrial climate dynamics in the Levant during the penultimate interglacial-glacial period. To decipher the palaeoclimatic history of the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 glacial period, a well-dated stalagmite (~194 to ~154 ka) from Kanaan Cave on the Mediterranean coast in Lebanon was analyzed for its petrography, growth history, and stable isotope geochemistry. A resolved climate record has been recovered from this precisely U–Th dated speleothem, spanning the late MIS 7 and early MIS 6 at low resolution and the mid–MIS 6 at higher resolution. The stalagmite grew discontinuously from ~194 to ~163 ka. More consistent growth and higher growth rates between ~163 and ~154 ka are most probably linked to increased water recharge and thus more humid conditions. More distinct layering in the upper part of the speleothem suggests strong seasonality from ~163 ka to ~154 ka. Short-term oxygen and carbon isotope excursions were found between ~155 and ~163 ka. The inferred Kanaan Cave humid intervals during the mid–MIS 6 follow variations of pollen records in the Mediterranean basins and correlate well with the synthetic Greenland record and East Asian summer monsoon interstadial periods, indicating short warm/wet periods similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during MIS 4–3 in the eastern Mediterranean region.
Innovative evidence-based interventions are needed to equip research mentors with skills to address cultural diversity within research mentoring relationships. A pilot study assessed initial outcomes of a culturally tailored effort to create and disseminate a novel intervention titled Culturally Aware Mentoring (CAM) for research mentors.
Intervention development resulted in 4 products: a 6 hour CAM training curriculum, a facilitator guide, an online pretraining module, and metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CAM training.
Participants were 64 research mentors from 3 US research-intensive universities. Quantitative pretraining and posttraining evaluation survey data were collected.
Participants found high value and satisfaction with the CAM training, reported gains in personal cultural awareness and cultural skills, and increased intentions and confidence to address cultural diversity in their mentoring.
Study findings indicate that the CAM training holds promise to build research mentors’ capacity and confidence to engage directly with racial/ethnic topics in research mentoring relationships.
A restricted Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-6) with the six schizophrenia specific items from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been investigated. These six items from the PANSS have recently been found to have both clinical validity and ‘unidimensionality’ in measuring the severity of schizophrenic states. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the BPRS-6. The secondary objective was to evaluate the ‘unidimensionality’ of the BPRS-6 by an ‘item response theory’ model.
The BPRS-6 was scored independently by two psychiatrists and two psychologists while viewing six open-ended videotaped interviews in patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizophrenia. The interviews were conducted by Heinz E. Lehmann, an experienced psychiatrist. They were focused on the psychopathology that contributed most to the ‘severity’ of the patient’s clinical state.
The BPRS-6 with three positive symptoms (delusions, conceptual disorganisation, hallucinations) and three negative symptoms (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, poverty of speech) was found to be clinically valid and captured the variables that contribute most to the severity of schizophrenia. The BPRS-6 was also found to have acceptable ‘unidimensionality’ (coefficient of homogeneity 0.45) and inter-rater reliability (inter-class-coefficient 0.81).
The BPRS-6 was found to capture the information that translates into the severity of schizophrenia. It has also acceptable psychometric validity.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for major depression is an effective treatment, but outcomes for complex cases, with co-occurring biological, psychological and social factors, are variable. Complexity factors can cause treatment to become diffuse, disorganized and over-complicated. At Step 3, disorder-specific protocols should be provided with therapy kept as simple as possible and delivered responsively, e.g. barriers to treatment should be tackled, ensure the client is well-prepared and seek to form a strong therapeutic alliance. At Step 4, if disorder-specific protocols have been ineffective, the priority is to formulate how complexity factors are interacting with the client's depression. An individualized formulation is used to carefully target these interactions. The treatment is still evidence-based and simple at the point of delivery, but there is greater emphasis on case-level interactions that are unique to each individual. Case examples are used to illustrate both approaches.
Although there is extensive evidence that problematic alcohol use is associated with smaller hippocampal volume, the typical cross-sectional study design cannot determine whether hippocampal deviations reflect pre-existing liability toward problematic alcohol use or instead reflect an alcohol exposure-related effect. We used the co-twin control study design, which capitalizes upon differences within a twin pair in levels of drinking, to differentiate pre-existing liability from an effect of alcohol exposure.
The sample included 100 female twins, prospectively assessed from ages 11 to 24. Problematic alcohol use was assessed dimensionally and included indicators of quantity, frequency, and density of alcohol use and intoxication. Hippocampal volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging.
Problematic alcohol use (proximal and cumulative) was associated with significantly smaller left and right hippocampal volume. Follow-up co-twin control analyses that partitioned individual-level alcohol effects into pre-existing, familial liability and non-shared alcohol exposure-related effects indicated that this association reflected alcohol exposure. Greater alcohol using twins had smaller hippocampal volume relative to lesser alcohol using co-twins, beyond effects of their shared genetic and environmental liability toward problematic alcohol use. Results held accounting for recent alcohol use, other substance use, externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, personality traits, trauma exposure, and menstrual phase.
The association between problematic alcohol use and smaller hippocampal volume likely reflects an alcohol exposure-related effect. Differentiating pre-existing brain deviations that confer risk for problematic alcohol use from those that reflect effects of alcohol on the brain will inform etiological models of addiction and further prevention and intervention efforts.
Germplasm of common beans from the Mesoamerican gene pool races: Durango, Jalisco, Mesoamerica and Guatemala have highest genetic variation for the crop's improvement. The objective was to assign 50 common bean germplasm in Uganda into its gene pool races based on analyses of population structure. Secondly, to estimate heritability and effects of genotype × environment (GXE) interaction on common bean agronomic and yield traits in space and time. Sample genomic DNA was amplified in 2011 with 22 Simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) and alleles separated using capillary electrophoresis. Field evaluations were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at NaCRRI and 2015 at CIAT – Kawanda. Multivariate analyses of SSRs data identified four subgroups within the germplasm: K4.1–K4.4, with corresponding Wrights fixation indices (FST) as 0.1829 for K4.1, 0.1585 for K4.4, 0.1579 for K4.2 and least for K4.3 at 0.0678. Gene pool race admixtures in the population (14%) were notable and attributed to gene flow. Four superior parents currently used in improving resistance to major diseases grouped as; Jalisco for MLB49-89A; Mesoamerica for MCM5001 and G2333; Durango for MEXICO 54. Heritability values for yield traits estimated using phenotypic data from above fixed parents, was above 0.81. Season and location had significant effect (P < 0.05) on numbers of: flower buds per inflorescence, pod formation and weight of 100 seeds. The findings will improve understanding of co-evolutionary relationships between bean hosts and pathogens for better disease management and will broaden the germplasm base for improving other tropical production constraints.
Rapid, local drainage of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland ice sheet is thought to result in surface velocity variations as far inland as the equilibrium zone (Zwally and others, 2002). Ice-penetrating radar surveys throughout this region allow us to characterize englacial drainage features that appear as vertically stacked diffraction hyperbolae in common-offset profiles. These data are used with a radar-simulation model, which allows for variations in geometry, penetration depth and infill material, to understand the characteristics of these hyperbolae and the likelihood that they are produced by moulins. We find only a moderate correlation between the locations of these possible moulins and supraglacial lakes, indicating that many lakes drain over the surface of the ice sheet, or do not contain sufficient water to reach the bed through moulin formation. We find a strong correlation between moulin location in the ablation region and elevated along-flow tension (due to flow over rough bedrock), which generates surface crevassing and provides an entry point for meltwater. Although theory suggests that moulins may form anywhere on the ice sheet given sufficient meltwater input, our data suggest that they are far more common in the ablation zone than near, or inland from, the equilibrium line.