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Outcome measures for mental health services need to adopt a service-user recovery focus.
To develop and validate a 10- and 20-item self-report recovery-focused quality of life outcome measure named Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL).
Qualitative methods for item development and initial testing, and quantitative methods for item reduction and scale construction were used. Data from >6500 service users were factor analysed and item response theory models employed to inform item selection. The measures were tested for reliability, validity and responsiveness.
ReQoL-10 and ReQoL-20 contain positively and negatively worded items covering seven themes: activity, hope, belonging and relationships, self-perception, well-being, autonomy, and physical health. Both versions achieved acceptable internal consistency, test–retest reliability (>0.85), known-group differences, convergence with related measures, and were responsive over time (standardised response mean (SRM) > 0.4). They performed marginally better than the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale and markedly better than the EQ-5D.
Both versions are appropriate for measuring service-user recovery-focused quality of life outcomes.
Declaration of interest
M.B. and J.Co. were members of the research group that developed the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) outcome measures.
In 1906, after giving up hope of vindicating logicism, Frege lists the results of his life's work that survive Russell's paradox. He begins:
Almost everything is connected with the Begriffsschrift. Concepts conceived as functions. Relations as functions with two arguments. Concept-extensions or classes are not primary for me. Unsaturatedness of both concepts and functions. The essence of concepts and functions recognized.
Twenty-two years earlier, in happier times, Frege took for his third guiding principle in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik the admonition, 'never to lose sight of the distinction between concept and object'. We cannot understand Frege's view of his epochal achievements in logic - let alone mark the distance that separates his understanding of quantificational logic from contemporary views - without an appreciation of the concept-object distinction, the centrality Frege assigns to it and its connections to his other views. The distinction embodies the quantificational understanding of generality that Frege sets against older conceptions of logic. This quantificational understanding of generality gives Frege the principle for determining the logical segmentation of sentences and the contents or thoughts expressed by sentences. I hold that Frege’s Context Principle sets forth this connection between logical segmentation and quantificational generality.
Sections 1–3 lay out Frege’s concept–object distinction and its place in his philosophy of logic. Section 4 describes Frege’s introduction of higher-level concepts and his assimilation of sentences to proper names. Sections 5 and 6 explore the charge that the concept–object distinction incoherently undermines itself in the so-called Kerry paradox. Sections 7 and 8 discuss the bearing of the Context Principle and the concept–object distinction on Frege’s logicism.
The logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle presented itself as the reconciliation of a thoroughgoing empiricism as regards substantive knowledge with the certainty and necessity of mathematics. According to empiricism, sense experience is the only source of substantive knowledge of facts, but sense experience might always have been different from what it actually was. Moreover, anything we extrapolate from what we experience may be falsified by further experiences. Knowledge grounded in sense experience is thus knowledge of contingencies, and except perhaps for knowledge of what is immediately experienced (“Red here now”), it is revisable on the basis of further experiences. In contrast, knowledge of mathematics appears to be unrevisably certain substantive knowledge of necessary truths. The contingencies of our sense experience thus seem to afford no basis for knowledge of mathematics. In a word, empiricism must be false, because mathematics is substantive a priori knowledge.
The logical empiricist approach to this dilemma is to deny that knowledge of mathematics is substantive knowledge. The apriority and necessity of mathematics is the apriority and necessity of logic. Logic is in its turn grounded in tacit conventions for the use of certain symbols, symbols that do not themselves stand for anything, like the signs for negation and conjunction. As Hans Hahn put it:
[Logic] only deals with the way we talk about objects; logic first comes into being through language. And the certainty and universal validity of a proposition of logic . . . flows precisely from this, that it says nothing about any objects . . .We learn – by training, as I should like to put it – to assign the designation “red” to some of these objects, and we make an agreement to assign the designation “not red” to any others. On the basis of this agreement we can now state the following proposition with absolute certainty: None of these objects is assigned both the designation “red” and the designation “not red,” which is usually expressed briefly as follows: No object is both red and not red.”
Consumer protection law in the age of globalisation poses new challenges for policy-makers. The legislative and regulatory framework developed to undergird consumer protection law in the 1960s and 1970s has come under pressure, ‘spurred’, as Michael Trebilcock suggests in his essay in this volume, ‘both by the changes in the nature of modern industrial economies and the evolution of economic theories’. Trebilcock argues that consumer protection law at the beginning of the new millennium ‘is a much messier and more complex affair’ than it was some thirty or forty years ago. The changes he describes include ‘rapidity of technological change, deregulation of hitherto monopolised industries, globalisation of markets’ and the ‘increasing sophistication in economic theories that evaluate market structure, conduct and performance’.
Governments can no longer develop domestic consumer protection law in isolation from international developments. Iain Ramsay argues herein that globalisation has ‘increased the international dimensions of access to justice and consumer protection as developments in communication technology facilitate the possibility of cross-border frauds’. Consumer law in the twenty-first century must become what he calls ‘applied comparative law’.
The growth of international consumer transactions and the emergence of a new conception of the role of the state have led to a proliferation of consumer protection models all designed with the idea of improving access to justice. As Ramsay demonstrates in his essay, consumer protection and access to justice have traditionally been linked.
Charles E. F. Rickett, Professor of Commercial Law University of Auckland; Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne,
Thomas G. W. Telfer, Associate Professor of Law and Director of the Area of Concentration in Business Law University of Western Ontario
Consumer protection law in the age of globalisation poses new challenges for policy-makers. This book highlights the difficulties of framing regulatory responses to the problem of consumers' access to justice in the new international economy. The growth of international consumer transactions in the wake of technological change and the globalisation of markets suggests that governments can no longer develop consumer protection law in isolation from the international legal arena. Leading scholars consider the broader theme of access to justice from socio-legal, law and economics perspectives. Topics include standard form contracts, the legal challenges posed by mass infections (such as mad-cow disease and CJD), ombudsman schemes, class actions, alternative dispute resolution, consumer bankruptcy, conflict of laws, and cross-border transactions. This book demonstrates that advancing and achieving access to justice for consumers proves to be a challenging, and sometimes elusive, task.
The Eighth International Consumer Law Conference was held in Auckland, New Zealand, from 9–11 April 2001. John Skinnon of the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand was instrumental in ensuring that the Conference came to New Zealand on behalf of the International Association for Consumer Law, where it was jointly hosted by the Open Polytechnic and the Research Centre for Business Law at The University of Auckland. It was in large part made possible because of the generous sponsorship of the New Zealand Ministry of Consumer Affairs, the Emily Carpenter Consumer Charitable Trust, Butterworths (NZ), CCH (NZ) and the Open Polytechnic. Over 120 delegates attended from numerous countries, including Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Britain, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Macau, Malta, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey and the United States.
The theme was ‘Consumers' Access to Justice'. The essays collected in this volume were chosen from among the sixty papers presented. We thank the authors for their willingness to have their contributions included, and for the enormous patience they have shown during a lengthy editing and pre-publication period. We hope the quality of the final product convinces them that the wait was worthwhile!
Words of appreciation only inadequately compensate other people who worked with us on this project. First, Thierry Bourgoignie, President of the International Association for Consumer Law, was most gracious in all his contacts with those who organised and hosted the Conference, and was very helpful throughout.