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We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.
We have previously shown that the minor alleles of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) single-nucleotide polymorphism rs833069 and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2758331 are both associated with improved transplant-free survival after surgery for CHD in infants, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesised that one or both of these minor alleles are associated with better systemic ventricular function, resulting in improved survival.
This study is a follow-up analysis of 422 non-syndromic CHD patients who underwent neonatal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Echocardiographic reports were reviewed. Systemic ventricular function was subjectively categorised as normal, or as mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. The change in function was calculated as the change from the preoperative study to the last available study. Stepwise linear regression, adjusting for covariates, was performed for the outcome of change in ventricular function. Model comparison was performed using Akaike’s information criterion. Only variables that improved the model prediction of change in systemic ventricular function were retained in the final model.
Genetic and echocardiographic data were available for 335/422 subjects (79%). Of them, 33 (9.9%) developed worse systemic ventricular function during a mean follow-up period of 13.5 years. After covariate adjustment, the presence of the VEGFA minor allele was associated with preserved ventricular function (p=0.011).
These data support the hypothesis that the mechanism by which the VEGFA single-nucleotide polymorphism rs833069 minor allele improves survival may be the preservation of ventricular function. Further studies are needed to validate this genotype–phenotype association and to determine whether this mechanism is related to increased vascular endothelial growth factor production.
The healthcare burden of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) demands attention and calls for a solution. Identifying patients’ risk of developing a primary nosocomial CDI is a critical first step in reducing the development of new cases of CDI.
To derive a clinical prediction rule that can predict a patient’s risk of acquiring a primary CDI.
Retrospective cohort study.
Large tertiary healthcare center.
Total of 61,482 subjects aged at least 18 admitted over a 1-year period (2013).
Patient demographic characteristics, evidence of CDI, and other risk factors were retrospectively collected. To derive the CDI clinical prediction rule the patient population was divided into a derivation and validation cohort. A multivariable analysis was performed in the derivation cohort to identify risk factors individually associated with nosocomial CDI and was validated on the validation sample.
Among 61,482 subjects, CDI occurred in 0.46%. CDI outcome was significantly associated with age, admission in the past 60 days, mechanical ventilation, dialysis, history of congestive heart failure, and use of antibiotic medications. The sensitivity and specificity of the score, in the validation set, were 82.0% and 75.7%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85.
This study successfully derived a clinical prediction rule that will help identify patients at high risk for primary CDI. This tool will allow physicians to systematically recognize those at risk for CDI and will allow for early interventional strategies.