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In this paper, we ask whether or not we can afford to realize the potential benefits of genetic testing as a screening tool for adoptees. Our method is to provide reasonable cost and savings estimates. We argue that the prospect of cost neutrality should be sufficient to explore the targeted screening for a population who will otherwise suffer an avoidable health disparity in access to inherited disease information. Our goal here is to establish that the investment needed to attain these benefits is not beyond our means.
Traditional ambulatory rhythm monitoring in children can have limitations, including cumbersome leads and limited monitoring duration. The ZioTM patch ambulatory monitor is a small, adhesive, single-channel rhythm monitor that can be worn up to 2 weeks. In this study, we present a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the ZioTM monitor’s impact in clinical practice. Patients aged 0–18 years were included in the study. A total of 373 studies were reviewed in 332 patients. In all, 28.4% had structural heart disease, and 16.9% had a prior surgical, catheterisation, or electrophysiology procedure. The most common indication for monitoring was tachypalpitations (41%); 93.5% of these patients had their symptoms captured during the study window. The median duration of monitoring was 5 days. Overall, 5.1% of ZioTM monitoring identified arrhythmias requiring new intervention or increased medical management; 4.0% identified arrhythmias requiring increased clinical surveillance. The remainder had either normal-variant rhythm or minor rhythm findings requiring no change in management. For patients with tachypalpitations and no structural heart disease, 13.2% had pathological arrhythmias, but 72.9% had normal-variant rhythm during symptoms, allowing discharge from cardiology care. Notably, for patients with findings requiring intervention or increased surveillance, 56% had findings first identified beyond 24 hours, and only 62% were patient-triggered findings. Seven studies (1.9%) were associated with complications or patient intolerance. The ZioTM is a well-tolerated device that may improve what traditional Holter and event monitoring would detect in paediatric cardiology patients. This study shows a positive clinical impact on the management of patients within a paediatric cardiology practice.
Late prehistoric archaeological research in Myanmar is in a phase of rapid expansion. Recent work by the Mission Archéologique Française au Myanmar aims to establish a reliable Neolithic to Iron Age culture-historical sequence, which can then be compared to surrounding regions of Southeast Asia. Excavations at Nyaung'gan and Oakaie in central Myanmar have provided 52 new AMS dates, which allow the creation of Myanmar's first reliable prehistoric radiometric chronology. They have also identified the Neolithic to Bronze Age transition in central Myanmar, which is of critical importance in understanding long-range interactions at the national, regional and inter-regional level. This research provides the first significant step towards placing late prehistoric Myanmar in its global context.
We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30–45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score −0.4, 95% CI −2.8–0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.
To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering.
Subjects were adults ages 18–55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman’s rank correlation and Pearson’s χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module.
Out of the three ADHD domains, the inattentive ADHD scores had the strongest association with the MWQ (total: rs=0.34, df=39, p=0.03; inattentive: rs=0.38, df=39, p=0.02; Hyperactive: rs=0.17, df=39, p=0.28). Correlation analyses between individual items on the ADHD module and the MWQ showed that two inattention items (‘failure to pay attention to detail’ and ‘trouble following instructions’) were positively associated with total scores on the MWQ (p=0.02). These two inattention items had the strongest association with the MWQ (rs=0.45, df=38, p=0.004). ROC analyses showed that the combined score of the two significant inattention items had the highest efficiency (AUC=0.71) in classifying high-level mind wanderers as defined by scores greater than the median split on the MWQ. The combined score of the two inattention items best identified high-level mind wanderers.
Results suggest a way to operationalise mind wandering using the symptoms of ADHD.
An oncological emergency is an acute medical problem related to cancer or its treatment which may result in serious morbidity or mortality if not treated quickly. It may be secondary to a structural/obstructive, metabolic or treatment-related complication (Cervantes and Chirivella, 2004). The emergency may be the first manifestation of malignant disease, particularly for superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO) and malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC).
Around 20–30% of all cancer patients suffer from hypercalcaemia. Spinal cord compression is the commonest neurological complication of cancer, occuring in approximately 5–10% of all cancer patients. Thrombotic events are the second leading cause of death in cancer patients after death from cancer itself.
Types of emergency
Metabolic emergencies include:
• syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).
Structural/obstructive emergencies include:
• MSCC and cauda equina compression,
• raised intracranial pressure,
• acute airway obstruction,
• urinary obstruction,
• cardiac tamponade,
• pain: this has been named the ‘fifth vital sign’ following pulse, blood pressure, temperature and respiration; when pain is present it should evoke an immediate response. Treatment of pain is considered in Chapter 10 .
• thromboembolic disease.
Treatment-related emergencies include:
• neutropenic fever/sepsis,
• anaphylaxis related to a chemotherapeutic agent,
• tumour lysis syndrome,
• extravasation of a chemotherapeutic agent .
As with any acute medical emergency, resuscitation measures may be needed to ensure that airway, breathing and circulation are maintained. Adequate hydration, oxygen and monitoring of fluid balance are particularly important in patients with sepsis or tumour lysis syndrome. Steroids are used in patients with SVCO and suspected spinal cord compression, although the evidence base supporting their use is poor. Mannitol infusions may be needed for severe symptomatic raised intracranial pressure that does not respond to steroids. Pain, breathlessness and distress should be treated as priorities, especially in patients presenting with end-stage cancer and an oncological emergency. The WHO pain ladder is a suitable framework to guide appropriate analgesic use. Some seriously ill patients may need to be transferred to a high-dependency unit (HDU) or intensive therapy unit (ITU), especially those with a treatable malignancy and a good prognosis and those who develop complications of curative chemotherapy. Liaison with specialist colleagues at an early stage is recommended.