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The late Pleistocene–early Holocene archaeological record of the interior Pacific Northwest is dominated by what has been regionally referred to as the Western Stemmed Tradition (WST). While various efforts have attempted to clarify the chronology of this tradition, these have largely focused on data from the Great Basin and have been disproportionately preoccupied with establishing the beginning of the tradition due to its temporal overlap with Clovis materials. Specifically focusing on the Columbia Plateau, we apply a series of Bayesian chronological models to create concise estimates of the most likely beginning, end, and span of the WST. We then further explore its chronology by modeling its temporal span under various parameters and criteria so as to better identify places in the chronology that need further work and those that are robust regardless of data iteration. Our analysis revealed four major findings: (1) WST conservatively dates between 13,000 and 11,000 cal BP, likely extending to ~13,500 cal BP; (2) the most problematic period for WST is its termination; (3) the WST is incredibly long-lived compared to roughly contemporary Paleoindian traditions; and (4) the WST was seemingly unaffected by the onset of the Younger Dryas.
The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
The northern New England region includes the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine and encompasses a large degree of climate and edaphic variation across a relatively small spatial area, making it ideal for studying climate change impacts on agricultural weed communities. We sampled weed seedbanks and measured soil physical and chemical characteristics on 77 organic farms across the region and analyzed the relationships between weed community parameters and select geographic, climatic, and edaphic variables using multivariate procedures. Temperature-related variables (latitude, longitude, mean maximum and minimum temperature) were the strongest and most consistent correlates with weed seedbank composition. Edaphic variables were, for the most part, relatively weaker and inconsistent correlates with weed seedbanks. Our analyses also indicate that a number of agriculturally important weed species are associated with specific U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones, implying that future changes in climate factors that result in geographic shifts in these zones will likely be accompanied by changes in the composition of weed communities and therefore new management challenges for farmers.
Scattering of radio waves off inhomogeneities in electron density in the interstellar medium can produce an apparent broadening in the angular diameter of an intrinsically compact background radio source. The magnitude and distribution of this effect at low galactic latitudes (|b|<5°) is not well known, although several cases suggest substantial broadening in certain directions, such as the Cygnus X region (Anderson et al. 1972), and the galactic center (Davies, Walsh, and Booth 1976). Large scattering in the plane is consistent with the scintillation properties of pulsars seen through substantial thicknesses (≳ 1 kpc) of the galactic disk.
In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, it is vital that selection effects are taken into account when making conclusions about the stellar populations of the Galaxy. Here we use the Galactic disc sample of stars from the Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release 4 (GES iDR4), applying the published selection function to characterise the vertical extent of the chemically defined thick and thin discs.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
We tested whether the presence of both child-targeted and nutrition-focused (i.e. parent-targeted) marketing cues on food packaging was associated with the nutritional content of these products.
We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 403 food packages chosen randomly from the supermarket’s online portal along with all products (n 312) from the cereal aisle in a supermarket from the Southeastern USA. We examined main and interaction effects for cues on nutritional content (e.g. energy density, sugar, sodium, fibre).
A regional supermarket chain in the Southeastern USA.
Tests of main effects indicated that increased presence of nutritional cues was linked to more nutritious content (e.g. less sugar, less saturated fat, more fibre) while the increased presence of child-targeted cues was uniformly associated with less nutritious content (e.g. more sugar, less protein, less fibre). Among the interaction effects, results revealed that products with increased nutrition-focused and child-targeted cues were likely to contain significantly more sugar and less protein than other products.
Products that seek to engage children with their packaging in the supermarket are significantly less nutritious than foods that do not, while product packages that suggest nutritional benefits have more nutritious content. More importantly, the study provides evidence that those products which try to engage both child and parent consumers are significantly less healthy in crucial ways (e.g. more sugar, less fibre) than products that do not.
We report a significant hardening of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray spectrum from the core of Cen A at E > 2.4 GeV, suggesting there is a source of high energy particles in the core of Cen A which is in addition to the jet component. We show that the observed gamma-ray spectrum is compatible with either a spike in the dark matter halo profile or a population of millisecond pulsars. This work gives a strong indication of new gamma-ray production mechanisms in active galactic nuclei and could even provide evidence for the clustering of heavy dark matter particles around black holes.
We report on a large, multi-wavelength campaign to observe variability across the electromagnetic spectrum in the M dwarf flare star EV Lacertae, in 2001 September. The campaign involved X-ray (Chandra ACIS-S+HETG), UV (HST/STIS), and optical (McDonald) spectra, as well as optical photometry and multi-frequency radio (VLA) observations. EV Lac demonstrated both frequent and extreme variability during the course of the two day intensive recordings. Dispersed X-ray spectra confirm the metal underabundance seen in other active stars. The increase in continuum fluxes at short X-ray wavelengths during flare intervals compared to quiescent intervals signals the creation of high temperature plasma, a signature of the flare process. Multi-wavelength comparisons reveal interesting trends: X-ray flare frequencies are within the range predicted by optical observations, yet there is no correspondence between X-ray flares and optical flares in our data. Two UV flares occur during the rise stages of X-ray flares; a major radio flare is accompanied by a large optical flare, which has no apparent counterpart in the X-ray. The results give conflicting evidence for the applicability of the Neupert effect interpretation in stellar coronae.
Pioneering studies of winds from non-coronal evolved late-type stars were plagued by uncertainties in the Ca ionization balance which severely limited the accuracy of derived mass-loss rates. Here we re-examine the Ca II ionization balance in these stellar winds using FUSE spectra which reveal, for the first time, the flux from the photoionizing radiation field shortward of 1045Â. We present a FUSE 912-1185Â spectroscopic survey of evolved late-K and M stars; including the M giants α Cet (M1.5 III), γ Cru (M3.5 III), β Gru (M4.5 III), and R Dor (M8e III). Using FUSE spectra of α Tau (K5 III), supplemented with partial redistribution calculations of H Ly-α and Ly-β, together with UV and radio data, we present a study of α Tau's wind ionization balance and derive new constraints which place the mass-loss rate significantly below that suggested by the Reimers formula.
We investigate the coronal structure of rapidly-rotating, solar-like stars using Chandra HETGS spectra of the short-period binary ER Vul, and by comparison with X-ray observations of the Sun and other dwarf stars. ER Vul consists of two solar-like (G0 + G5) dwarfs with rotation rates ~ 40 times that of the Sun. This binary is not interacting and these stars are the fastest rotating G dwarfs suitable for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray (1.8-40 Å) spectra were obtained on 2001 March 29-30 along with 10.5 hours of simultaneous VLA monitoring at 3.6 and 20 cm. These spectra show hot, multi-temperature coronal emission with emission lines ranging in temperature from O VII (2 MK) to Fe XXIV (30 MK). ER Vul showed only low-level variability during the X-ray observation. Unlike the behaviour of longer period active binaries, no large, long-duration flares were detected, consistent with previous X-ray observations of this binary. No evidence for eclipses is seen in either the X-ray or radio emission. The coronal emission measure distribution and elemental abundances were derived for ER Vul.
We present Faint Object Camera (FOC) ultraviolet images of the central 14 x 14″ of Messier 31 and Messier 32. The hot stellar population detected in the composite UV spectra of these galaxies is partially resolved into stars, and we measure their colors and apparent magnitudes. We detect 433 stars in M31 and 138 stars in M32, down to limits of mF275W = 25.5 mag and mF175W = 24.5 mag. We investigate the luminosity functions of the sources, their spatial distribution, their color-magnitude diagrams, and their total integrated far-UV flux. Although M32 has a weaker UV upturn than M31, the luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams of M31 and M32 are surprisingly similar, and are inconsistent with a majority contribution from any of the following: post-AGB stars more massive than 0.56 M⊙, main sequence stars, or blue stragglers. The luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams are consistent with a dominant population of stars evolving from the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) along tracks of mass 0.47–0.53 M⊙. These stars are well below the detection limits of our images while on the zero-age EHB, but become detectable while in the more luminous (but shorter) post-HB phases. Our observations require that only a very small fraction of the main sequence population (2% in M31 and 0.5% in M32) in these two galaxies evolve though the EHB and post-EHB phases, with the remainder rapidly evolving through bright post-AGB evolution with few resolved stars expected in the small field of view covered by the FOC.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.