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Because of advances in treatment over the past 30 years, the number of older people living with HIV is growing. This is important for Indigenous Peoples in Canada, given their continuing over-representation in HIV diagnoses. However, little is known about the experiences of older, HIV-positive Indigenous Peoples. Taking a strength-based approach, this research explored how older Indigenous men with HIV conceptualize successful aging. Research was conducted in partnership with the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network. First Nations, Inuit, and Métis men, ranging in age from 43 to 63 years who had been HIV positive for 10–29 years participated in sharing circles and interviews. An open analytic approach was used to explore the content of transcripts, and codes were collaboratively developed through an inductive and iterative process. From our analysis of commonalities across Indigenous groups, we offer our insights on the application of the successful aging model to Indigenous men aging with HIV.
The study of the recorded artefact from a musicological perspective continues to unfold through contemporary research. Whilst an understanding of the scientific elements of recorded sound is well documented, the exploration of the production and the artistic nature of this endeavour is still developing. This article explores phenomenological aspects of producing heavy metal music from the perspective of seven renowned producers working within the genre. Through a series of interviews and subsequent in-depth analysis, particular sonic qualities are identified as key within the production of this work: impact; energy; precision; and extremity. A conceptual framework is then put forward for understanding the production methodology of recorded heavy metal music, and how developing technology has influenced the production of the genre.
To Investigate the peripheral inflammatory profile in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from three subgroups – probable Lewy body disease (probable MCI-LB), possible Lewy body disease, and probable Alzheimer’s disease (probable MCI-AD) – as well as associations with clinical features.
Memory clinics and dementia services.
Patients were classified based on clinical symptoms as probable MCI-LB (n = 38), possible MCI-LB (n = 18), and probable MCI-AD (n = 21). Healthy comparison subjects were recruited (n = 20).
Ten cytokines were analyzed from plasma samples: interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. C-reactive protein levels were investigated.
There was a higher level of IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-2, and IL-4 in MCI groups compared to the healthy comparison group (p < 0.0085). In exploratory analyses to understand these findings, the MC-AD group lower IL-1beta (p = 0.04), IL-2 (p = 0.009), and IL-4 (p = 0.012) were associated with increasing duration of memory symptoms, and in the probable MCI-LB group, lower levels of IL-1beta were associated with worsening motor severity (p = 0.002). In the possible MCI-LB, longer duration of memory symptoms was associated with lower levels of IL-1beta (p = 0.003) and IL-4 (p = 0.026).
There is increased peripheral inflammation in patients with MCI compared to healthy comparison subjects regardless of the MCI subtype. These possible associations with clinical features are consistent with other work showing that inflammation is increased in early disease but require replication. Such findings have importance for timing of putative therapeutic strategies aimed at lowering inflammation.
Befriending by volunteers has the potential to reduce the frequent social isolation of patients with schizophrenia and thus improve health outcomes. However, trial-based evidence for its effectiveness is limited.
To conduct a randomised controlled trial of befriending for patients with schizophrenia or related disorders.
Patients were randomised to a befriending programme for 1 year or to receive information about social activities only (trial registration: ISRCTN14021839). Outcomes were assessed masked to allocation at the end of the programme; at 12 months and at a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was daily time spent in activities (using the Time Use Survey (TUS)) with intention-to-treat analysis.
A total of 124 patients were randomised (63 intervention, 61 active control) and 92 (74%) were followed up at 1 year. In the intervention group, 49 (78%) met a volunteer at least once and 31 (49%) had more than 12 meetings. At 1 year, mean TUS scores were more than three times higher in both groups with no significant difference between them (adjusted difference 8.9, 95% CI −40.7 to 58.5, P = 0.72). There were no significant differences in quality of life, symptoms or self-esteem. However, patients in the intervention group had significantly more social contacts than those in the control group at the end of the 12-month period. This difference held true at the follow-up 6 months later.
Although no difference was found on the primary outcome, the findings suggest that befriending may have a lasting effect on increasing social contacts. It may be used more widely to reduce the social isolation of patients with schizophrenia.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our primary objective was to understand the relationship between incident or recent stressful events and adherence to HIV care in the context of other person, environment, and HIV-specific stressors in a sample of Black women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with Black women living with HIV who receive care at an academic HIV primary care clinic in the Southern region of the United States to elicit stressful events influencing adherence to HIV care. Semi-structured interview guides were used to facilitate discussion regarding stressful events and adherence to HIV care. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were independently coded using a theme-based approach by two experienced coders, findings were compared, and discrepancies were resolved by discussion. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants described frequently experiencing incident stressful events including death or serious illness of a close friend or family member, and relationship, financial, and employment difficulties. Furthermore, participants reported experiencing traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescents. While experiencing traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescence may be distressing, these events did not influence adherence to HIV care. However, incident stressful events as defined above did influence adherence to HIV care for some participants, but not for others. For participants who reported that stressful events did not influence adherence to HIV care, factors such as personal motivation, access to social support, and adaptive coping strategies facilitated their engagement in care. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Experiencing stressful events, incident or traumatic, is common among Black WLWH and have the potential to negatively influence adherence to HIV care. Thus, Interventions aimed at identifying and addressing stress, social support, and coping are essential to improve adherence to HIV care behaviors.
The proprietary immediate and extended drug delivery technology LiquiXR™ utilizes an ion-exchange resin that complexes with amphetamine or any other active moiety that can be protonated and is water-soluble. The active drug product forms a complex with ion-exchange polymers contained in the resin, which is then formed into micron-sized particles. Some of these particles are coated with an aqueous, pH-independent polymer designed to provide immediate or sustained release of active drug product. The polymer coating applied to the ion-exchange resin particles is of varying thickness, allowing for programmed, extended release of active drug product. Solid, coating-free particles provide for immediate release of active drug product.
The micron-sized particles are formulated into an appropriate dosage form (solid or chewable tablet, liquid suspension, orally disintegrating tablet, film, or capsules). Active drug product is subsequently released from the dosage form in millions of particles, with the release driven by a combination of ion exchange and diffusion. After drug release, the ion-exchange resin is excreted in the feces.
The release characteristics of LiquiXR™ are programmable and allow for a customized, sustained release of active drug product for up to 24hours post-dose. Mechanistically, drug particles enter the gastrointestinal tract. As positively-charged ions from gastrointestinal (GI) fluids diffuse across the coating, ionically-charged drug product diffuses through the coating and into the GI fluids for absorption. As the coating is of variable thickness, some drug product takes longer to diffuse and absorb, providing for the programmable delayed drug release characteristic.
The LiquiXR™ drug delivery technology is utilized in Dyanavel® XR (amphetamine extended-release oral suspension; AMPH EROS), which is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It comprises 2.5mg/mL amphetamine base complexed with LiquiXR technology to provide an immediate release component followed by an extended-release profile. The efficacy of AMPH EROS was established in children ages 6 to 12 years in a Phase 3, placebo-controlled laboratory classroom study. In that study, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children on an individually optimized dose of amphetamine (range 10–20mg/day) were statistically significantly improved compared with symptoms in children treated with placebo. For children treated with AMPH EROS, onset of effect was demonstrated at 1hour after dosing, and efficacy was observed through 13hours post-dose. The effect size was comparable to effect sizes demonstrated for other psychostimulants tested in studies using a similar design. The efficacy data reported for AMPH EROS provides an excellent example of the potential utility and clinical application for other active drug products requiring an immediate release and extended release profile.
Funding Acknowledgements: This work was funded by Tris Pharma, Inc.
To determine whether amphetamine extended-release oralsuspension (AMPH EROS) has an onset of effect at 30minutes postdose inchildren with ADHD.
This randomized, double-blind, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, placebo-controlled crossover pilot study enrolled subjects aged 6 to 12 years withattention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Rating Scale-5 scores of ≥90th percentile for sex and age. A dose of 5 to 20mg/day of AMPH EROS was determined during a 1-week open-label phase based on medication history, symptom control, and tolerability. Subjects completed a practice laboratory classroom then received one day of double-blind active drug or placebo each in random sequence during 2 double-blind laboratory classroom days. Subjects completed the first double-blind laboratory classroom session, returned to open label drug for 5days then crossed over on day 6 during a second double-blind laboratory classroom session. DB dose was fixed at AMPH EROS 15, 17.5, or 20mg . The primary endpoint was change from predose in the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, Pelham rating scale-combined score (SKAMP-C) at 30minutes postdose on two DB days. The key secondary endpoint was change from predose in the SKAMP-C score at 3hours postdose for AMPH EROS compared with placebo. Safety assessments included vital signs and adverse events.
Eighteen subjects were enrolled in the study (14 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 9 years. At both 30minutes and 3hours postdose, changes from baseline in SKAMP-C for AMPH EROS vs. placebo were statistically significant (p<0.01 and p=0.0002, respectively) with corresponding effect sizes of 0.96 and 1.57. Adverse events (>10%) during the open-label phase included upper respiratory tract infection, fatigue, upper abdominal pain, headache, decreased appetite, and affect lability.
AMPH EROS was effective in reducing ADHD symptoms at 30minutes postdose. AEs were mild or moderate and consistent with those of other extended-release amphetamines.
Funding Acknowledgements: Support was provided by Tris Pharma, Inc.
To determine the efficacy and safety of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (AMPH EROS) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with placebo in a dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind study.
The efficacy of AMPH EROS was evaluated in a laboratory classroom study conducted in 108 pediatric patients (aged 6–12 years) with ADHD. The study began with an open-label dose optimization (5weeks) with an initial AMPH EROS dose of 2.5 or 5mg once daily in the morning. The dose could be titrated every 4–7 days in increments of 2.5–10mg until an optimal dose or the maximum dose of 20mg/day was reached. Subjects were required to tolerate a minimal dose of 10mg/day. Subjects then entered a 1-week randomized, double-blind treatment phase with the individually optimized dose or placebo. At the end of the week, raters evaluated the attention and behavior of the subjects in a laboratory classroom using the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP-C) rating scale. SKAMP-C is a 13-item teacher-rated scale that assesses manifestations of ADHD in a classroom setting.
The primary efficacy endpoint was change from pre-dose in the SKAMP-C score at 4hours post dose. The key secondary endpoint efficacy parameters were onset and duration of clinical effect. The change scores from pre-dose SKAMP-C scores at post dose time points (1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13hours) were used to evaluate the key secondary efficacy endpoints.
More boys (68.7%) than girls participated in the study. The study population was 55.6% white, most patients had inattentive or combined type ADHD presentations. The primary efficacy endpoint, the change from pre-dose SKAMP-C score at 4hours post dose was statistically significantly improved (p<0.0001) compared with placebo. Each of the secondary efficacy endpoints were also significantly improved (p<0.0001 at each time point) compared with placebo. Adverse events reported (frequency >5%) reported during the dose optimization phase were decreased appetite, insomnia, affect lability, upper abdominal pain, mood swings, and headache.
AMPH EROS was effective in reducing symptoms or ADHD from 1 to 13hours after dosing. Adverse events reported were consistent with those of other amphetamine products.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Tris Pharma, Inc.
The proprietary, immediate and extended drug delivery technologyLiquiXR® utilizes an ion-exchange resin that complexes with amphetamine or any active moiety that can be protonated and is water-soluble. The active ingredient of the drug product forms a complex with an ion exchange polymer of the resin resulting in micron-sized particles. A portion of these particles is then coated with an aqueous, pH-independent polymer designed to provide sustained release of drug product. The polymer coating applied to the ion-exchange resin particles is of varying thickness, allowing for extended release of active drug while uncoated particles provide for immediate release of drug.
The micron-sized particles lend themselves to being formulated into an appropriate dosage form: solid/chewable tablet, liquid suspension, orally disintegrating tablet, film, or capsules. Active ingredient of drug product is subsequently released from the dosage form in millions of particles, with release driven by a combination of ion exchange and diffusion. After drug release, the ion-exchange resin particles are excreted in the feces.
The release characteristics of LiquiXR allow for customized, sustained release of active drug ∼24hours post dose. Mechanistically, drug particles enter the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. As positively-charged ions from GI fluids diffuse across the coating, it displaces drug ions from product and they diffuse through the coating and into the GI fluids for absorption. As the coating is of variable thickness, some drug product takes longer to diffuse and absorb, providing for the delayed drug release characteristics.
The LiquiXR drug delivery technology has already been successfully utilized in the development of treatment options (liquid suspension and chewable tablet) that offer rapid absorption and sustained plasma levels after once-daily dosing. LiquiXR is utilized in Dyanavel® XR (amphetamine extended-release oral suspension; AMPH EROS), which is indicated for treatment of ADHD. It comprises 2.5mg/mL amphetamine base and uses LiquiXR technology to provide an immediate release component followed by an extended-release profile.
Efficacy of AMPH EROS was established in children 6 to 12 yr in a Phase 3, placebo-controlled laboratory classroom study. In that study, ADHD symptoms in children on an individually optimized dose of amphetamine (range 10–20mg/day) were statistically significantly improved compared with symptoms in children treated with placebo. For children treated with AMPH EROS, onset of effect was demonstrated at 1hour after dosing, and efficacy was observed through 13hr post-dose. The effect size (ES) was comparable to ES demonstrated for other psychostimulants tested in studies using a similar design. The efficacy data reported for AMPH EROS provides an excellent example of the potential utility and clinical application for other active drug products requiring an immediate and extended release profile.
Funding Acknowledgements: Support provided by Tris Pharma, Inc.
Report the efficacy of open-label amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (AMPH EROS) for the treatment of children with ADHD.
AMPH EROS has a 1-hr onset of effect and a duration of action of 13hours and was approved by FDA for treatment of ADHD in children aged 6–17 years based on a double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study in children aged 6–12 years with ADHD. A significant treatment difference in change from pre-dose SKAMP-combined score was observed at the primary endpoint of 4hours post-dose (p<0.0001) and each post-dose time point assessed (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13hours).
Data reported here are from the 5-week, open-label dose optimization period. These efficacy data support the primary endpoint result.
Males and females aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD enrolled and began open-label treatment with 2.5 mg or 5mg/day of AMPH EROS titrated in 2.5–10mg/day increments until optimal dose (maximum 20mg/day). Doses could be decreased for tolerability. Subjects took morning AMPH EROS for 5weeks. Other efficacy outcomes during the open-label dose optimization phase: ADHD-RS (ADHD-Rating Scale), CGI-S (Clinical Global Impression of Severity), CGI-I (CGI-of Improvement) and CPRS (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale). All subjects were assessed for safety.
For the ITT population (n=99): treatment with AMPH EROS was associated with a mean change in ADHD-RS-IV (baseline to end of the open-label dose optimization; week 6) of 28.2 (±9.03) (Baseline score = 41.3±7.95). 90.9% of subjects had a change from baseline to open-label week 6 of ≥50% in the ADHD-RS-IV total score and were defined as responders. The CGI-S scores decreased continuously from baseline, with a high 4.8 at baseline to a low of 2.0 at open-label week 6. The percentage of subjects classified as moderately ill or greater correspondingly decreased from 97% at Baseline to 1% at open-label week 6. The decrease in the CGI-I over the study was similar to the change in CGI-S scores. CPRS for most categories decreased continuously from Baseline to open-label week 6. Mean change from baseline to open-label week 6 on the CPRS inattention T-score subscale was –25.3 (±14.38) and –24.4 (±13.87).
Adverse events (>5%) reported during dose optimization were decreased appetite, insomnia, affect lability, upper abdominal pain, mood swings and headache.
AMPH EROS was effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD in this open-label dose optimization. The AE profile of AMPH EROS was consistent with those of other amphetamine products.
Funding Acknowledgements: This work was funded by Tris Pharma, Inc.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in functional connectivity, white matter integrity, and cognitive abilities due to sports-related concussion (SRC) in adolescents using a prospective longitudinal design. Methods: We assessed male high school football players (ages 14–18) with (n=16) and without (n=12) SRC using complementary resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with cognitive performance using the Immediate Post-Concussive Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). We assessed both changes at the acute phase (<7 days post-SRC) and at 21 days later, as well as, differences between athletes with SRC and age- and team-matched control athletes. Results: The results revealed rs-fMRI hyperconnectivity within posterior brain regions (e.g., precuneus and cerebellum), and hypoconnectivity in more anterior areas (e.g., inferior and middle frontal gyri) when comparing SRC group to control group acutely. Performance on the ImPACT (visual/verbal memory composites) was correlated with resting state network connectivity at both time points. DTI results revealed altered diffusion in the SRC group along a segment of the corticospinal tract and the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the acute phase of SRC. No differences between the SRC group and control group were seen at follow-up imaging. Conclusions: Acute effects of SRC are associated with both hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity, with disruption of white matter integrity. In addition, acute memory performance was most sensitive to these changes. After 21 days, adolescents with SRC returned to baseline performance, although chronic hyperconnectivity of these regions could place these adolescents at greater risk for secondary neuropathological changes, necessitating future follow-up. (JINS, 2018, 24, 781–792)
Objectives: As the number of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) surviving congenital heart disease (CHD) grows, studies of long-term outcomes are needed. CHD research documents poor executive function (EF) and cerebellum (CB) abnormalities in children. We examined whether AYAs with CHD exhibit reduced EF and CB volumes. We hypothesized a double dissociation such that the posterior CB is related to EF while the anterior CB is related to motor function. We also investigated whether the CB contributes to EF above and beyond processing speed. Methods: Twenty-two AYAs with CHD and 22 matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging and assessment of EF, processing speed, and motor function. Volumetric data were calculated using a cerebellar atlas (SUIT) developed for SPM. Group differences were compared with t tests, relationships were tested with Pearson’s correlations and Fisher’s r to z transformation, and hierarchical regression was used to test the CB’s unique contributions to EF. Results: CHD patients had reduced CB total, lobular, and white matter volume (d=.52–.99) and poorer EF (d=.79–1.01) compared to controls. Significant correlations between the posterior CB and EF (r=.29–.48) were identified but there were no relationships between the anterior CB and motor function nor EF. The posterior CB predicted EF above and beyond processing speed (ps<.001). Conclusions: This study identified a relationship between the posterior CB and EF, which appears to be particularly important for inhibitory processes and abstract reasoning. The unique CB contribution to EF above and beyond processing speed alone warrants further study. (JINS, 2018, 24, 939–948)
Government agencies, environmental consultants, and the public alike are frustrated by poor the coordination between agency planning and environmental impact assessment (EIA). Contracts for project design, construction, and management too often fail to provide for EIA, or to accommodate its results. A systematic review of standard contract documents and guidelines used by one major U.S. government agency revealed that they seldom took into account the need for EIA or provided for integrating the results of EIA into planning. Correcting these deficiencies was not very difficult. Other agencies may be well advised to undertake similar reviews.
Cultural resource is a term that means different things to different people. In the United States, it is commonly conflated with the legally defined term historic property, but this conflation can deny consideration to a wide range of culturally valued aspects of the environment. In impact assessment, the jobs of identifying cultural resources and impacts on them are typically assigned to archaeologists and architectural historians, who often apply their own even narrower definitions of the term. This can result in systematically failing to analyze the most important impacts on the most culturally sensitive aspects of the environment. People responsible for environmental impact assessment should think carefully about how to address all kinds of potentially affected cultural resources. This usually involves making sure that those with cultural connections to an environment are involved productively in the assessment and its outcomes.
Fontan survivors have depressed cardiac index that worsens over time. Serum biomarker measurement is minimally invasive, rapid, widely available, and may be useful for serial monitoring. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers that correlate with lower cardiac index in Fontan patients.
Methods and results
This study was a multi-centre case series assessing the correlations between biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance-derived cardiac index in Fontan patients ⩾6 years of age with biochemical and haematopoietic biomarkers obtained ±12 months from cardiac magnetic resonance. Medical history and biomarker values were obtained by chart review. Spearman’s Rank correlation assessed associations between biomarker z-scores and cardiac index. Biomarkers with significant correlations had receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve estimated. In total, 97 cardiac magnetic resonances in 87 patients met inclusion criteria: median age at cardiac magnetic resonance was 15 (6–33) years. Significant correlations were found between cardiac index and total alkaline phosphatase (−0.26, p=0.04), estimated creatinine clearance (0.26, p=0.02), and mean corpuscular volume (−0.32, p<0.01). Area under the curve for the three individual biomarkers was 0.63–0.69. Area under the curve for the three-biomarker panel was 0.75. Comparison of cardiac index above and below the receiver operating characteristic curve-identified cut-off points revealed significant differences for each biomarker (p<0.01) and for the composite panel [median cardiac index for higher-risk group=2.17 L/minute/m2 versus lower-risk group=2.96 L/minute/m2, (p<0.01)].
Higher total alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular volume as well as lower estimated creatinine clearance identify Fontan patients with lower cardiac index. Using biomarkers to monitor haemodynamics and organ-specific effects warrants prospective investigation.