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Immigration is highly salient for voters in Europe and the USA and has generated considerable academic debate about the causes of preferences over immigration. This debate centers around the relative influences of sociotropic or personal economic considerations, as well as noneconomic threats. We provide a test of the competing egocentric, sociotropic, and noneconomic paradigms using a novel constrained preference experiment in which respondents are asked to trade off preferred reductions in immigration levels with realistic estimates of the personal or societal costs associated with those reductions. This survey experiment, performed on a national sample of British YouGov panelists, allows us to measure the price-elasticity of the publicʼs preferences with regard to levels of European and non-European immigration. Respondents were willing to admit more immigrants when restriction carries economic costs, with egocentric considerations as important as sociotropic ones. People who voted for the UK to Leave the European Union in the 2016 referendum are less price-elastic than those voting Remain, indicating that noneconomic concerns are also important.1
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is becoming a valid alternative to many traditional heavy metal industries because of its high specific stiffness over the more classical construction metals. Recent trend of more complex geometry of composites is causing increasing difficulty in composite manufacturing. A method to optimize the manufacturing process is thus imposed to ensure and improve the quality of manufactured parts. Because of the irregular 3D shapes of the composites, traditional flat sensor system is becoming unfavorable and nonpractical for monitoring purpose. In this work, the current development status of a deformable microsystem for in situ cure degree monitoring of a glass fibre reinforced plastic is presented. To accommodate the non-flat shape of the composites, the proposal is to interconnect non-deformable functional island, which contains the capacitive sensor for cure degree monitoring, with meander-shaped deformable interconnections. The developed sensor system is able to withstand the manufacturing process where change of pressure and internal strain, thus force exerted on the sensor system, is involved.
All rulers' portraits are, in several senses, forms of representation. In the first and most obvious instance, all portraits epitomize one of the basic functions of visual art as imitation (mimesis). Portraits represent a person by providing his or her likeness. The Renaissance sculptor Vincenzo Danti (1530–1576), a contemporary of the artists discussed here, pointed to this basic mimetic function when he defined one of the fundamental forms of artistic imitation as ritrarre, using a verb related to the Italian word for portrait, ritratto. Because they are works in three dimensions, sculpted portraits may approach this end even more directly, as seen in the sculpted heritage of Charles V that is the subject of this paper. In any case, hyperrealist works of the 1970s and wax sculpture of the past, including a small wax sculpture of Emperor Rudolf II with a favorite hound (London, Victoria and Albert Museum) (see Figure 1), demonstrate that sculpture may make the effort to portray individuals as close to life as possible.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygotic inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene at 17q11.2. The associated phenotypes are highly variable, and modifying genes have been proposed to explain at least in part the intriguing expressivity. Given that haploinsufficiency of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is responsible for some of the clinical manifestations, variations in expression of the wildtype NF1 allele might modify the phenotype. We therefore investigated epigenetic molecular modifications that could result in variable expression of the normal NF1 allele. To exclude confounding by DNA sequence variations, we analyzed monozygotic twin pairs with NF1 who presented with several discordant features. We fine-mapped the methylation pattern of a nearly 1 kb NF1 promoter region in lymphocytes of 8 twin pairs. All twin pairs showed significant intra-pair differences in methylation, especially of specific promoter subregions such as 5'UTR, exon 1 and intron 1 (+7 to +622), transcription factor binding sites and promoter elements like NF1HCS. Furthermore, we detected significant intra-pair differences in cytosine methylation for the region from -249 to -234 with regard to discordance for optic glioma with a higher grade of methylation in glioma cases. In conclusion, our findings of epigenetic differences of the NF1 promoter in leukocytes within mono zygotic twin pairs may serve as a proof of principle for other tissues. The results point towards a role of methylation patterns of the normal NF1 allele for expression differences and for modification of the NF1 phenotype.
The effect of the amount of Na present during the 3-stage growth of CIGS at very low temperature T2 on polyimide (PI) foils is studied. While at higher growth temperatures Na seems to impede In-Ga interdifussion, at very low temperatures it appears to further the process. An increase in Voc for a higher Na concentration can be explained by a higher net carrier concentration as measured by drive level capacitance profiling. Admittance spectroscopy measurements show shallow defects when the Na concentration increases. These results suggest that the main role of Na could be the passivation of InCu donor deep defect, in agreement with Wei's theory. Efficiencies of up to 15.1 % (0.5 cm2 active area with antireflection coating) and 13.6%, 14.1% (1 cm2 total and active area respectively without antireflection coating) for nominal T2=420° C were achieved on PI substrates so far.
The objective of this work is to increase the open circuit voltage of CuGaSe2(CGS)-based solar cells without decreasing their efficiency. For that, the interface between the p-type CGS absorber and the n-type CdS/ZnO window layer is compared using three different recipes for the growth of the buffer layer. Results show the importance of the adaptation of the CdS buffer layer to the CuGaSe2 absorber film. A maximum open circuit voltage of 922 mV is achieved for the devices when using 60ºC as the chemical bath temperature and a low thiourea concentration. Drive-level capacitance profiling, external quantum efficiency and temperature dependent current-voltage measurements reveal a better quality of the CdS/CuGaSe2 interface for this buffer layer deposition conditions. Factors such as the larger depletion region width and the lower doping level, reducing the tunnelling component, are pointed out as responsible of the higher Voc.
For preparation of ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, physical vapor deposition (PVD) was employed to deposit CdS buffer layers in ultrahigh vacuum on Se-decapped absorber surfaces, thus realizing an all ‘dry' fabrication process of the device. An 14.1% total area and 14.5% active area efficient ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell under AM1.5 conditions was achieved after annealing the as-prepared solar cells in air. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements were carried out in-situ to monitor the initial growth of the CdS buffer layer on the absorber, as well as its electronic properties, in particular, the work function. It was observed that the PVD-CdS growth is initially inhibited at the absorber grain boundaries. Quantum efficiency measurements allowed us to suppose that during the initial growth stage a passivation of the grain boundaries occurs. The latter explains the higher short-circuit currents of the cells with PVD-CdS compared to their references with CdS grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The beneficial effect of the annealing seems to originate from a formation of a region with higher band gap than that of the absorber bulk and inverted conductivity type at the absorber surface, close to the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface, leading to a dramatic change in the electronic transport properties and finally, to a significant enhancement of the open-circuit voltage. Annealing of the ZnO/PVD-CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells provides formation of PVDCdS/ Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface with properties similar to that of reference samples with CBD-CdS.
We, Lucifer, lord of darkness, ruler of deep sadness, emperor of the hellish cesspool, duke of the sulphuric waters, king of the cliff, and administrator of the hellish fire, to each and everyone in our realm, friends, bishops, prelates, cathedral canons, clergy, and all others of whatever dignity and the state you may be in: our greetings.