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The vast majority of power generation in the United States today is produced through the same processes as it was in the late-1800s: heat is applied to water to generate steam, which turns a turbine, which turns a generator, generating electrical power. Researchers today are developing solid-state power generation processes that are more befitting the 21st-century. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells directly convert radiated thermal energy into electrical power, through a process similar to how traditional photovoltaics work. These TPV generators, however, include additional system components that solar cells do not incorporate. These components, selective-emitters and filters, shape the way the radiated heat is transferred into the TPV cell for conversion and are critical for its efficiency. Here, we present a review of work performed to improve the components in these systems. These improvements will help enable TPV generators to be used with nearly any thermal source for both primary power generation and waste heat harvesting.
Most studies examining predictors of the onset of depression focus on variable centered regression methods that focus on the effects of multiple predictors. In contrast, person-centered approaches develop profiles of factors and these profiles can be examined as predictors of onset. Here, we developed profiles of adolescent psychosocial and clinical functioning among adolescents without a history of major depression.
Data come from a subsample of participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project who completed self-report measures of functioning in adolescence and completed diagnostic and self-report measures at follow-up assessments up to approximately 15 years after baseline.
We identified four profiles of psychosocial and clinical functioning: Thriving; Average Functioning; Externalizing Vulnerability and Family Stress and Internalizing Vulnerability at the baseline assessment of participants without a history of depression at the initial assessment in mid-adolescence. Classes differed in the likelihood of onset and course of depressive disorders, experience of later anxiety and substance use disorders, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Moreover, the predictive utility of these classes was maintained when controlling for multiple other established risk factors for depressive disorders.
This work highlights the utility of examining multiple factors simultaneously to understand risk for depression.
This study originated in collaboration with Thomas Dishion because of concerns that a group format for aggressive children might dampen the effects of cognitive-behavioral intervention. Three hundred sixty aggressive preadolescent children were screened through teacher and parent ratings. Schools were randomized to receive either an individual or a group format of the child component of the same evidence-based program. The results indicate that there is variability in how group-based cognitive-behavioral intervention can affect aggressive children through a long 4-year follow-up after the end of the intervention. Aggressive children who have higher skin conductance reactivity (potentially an indicator of poorer emotion regulation) and who have a variant of the oxytocin receptor gene that may be associated with being hyperinvolved in social bonding have better outcomes in their teacher-rated externalizing behavior outcomes over time if they were seen individually rather than in groups. Analyses also indicated that higher levels of the group leaders’ clinical skills predicted reduced externalizing behavior problems. Implications for group versus individual format of cognitive-behavioral interventions for aggressive children, and for intensive training for group therapists, informed by these results, are discussed.
Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Proteomics based clinical diagnostics systems utilize the principle of protein identification as a means of biomarker profiling for disease diagnosis. The current standardized immunoassay techniques such as Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) are based on the fluorescent detection of the antibody (Ab)-antigen (Ag) binding event. These techniques are expensive; time consuming requiring a large sample volume. We present here two electrical immunoassay techniques that can potentially used for the rapid, multiplexed diagnosis of proteins for disease identification. The first technique involves the use of nanoporous templates in conjunction with microfabricated platforms with metallic base electrodes resulting In the formation of a “nanowell” assay system that is analogous to the micro titer well plate system. The detection of the formation of binding complex is achieved by capacitive measurement techniques. The dynamic range and the calibration of the device has been performed with respective to the current gold standard in proteomics. The second technique involves the use of microscale carriers to transport ab’s to sensing sites on microfabricated base platforms. The binding of the Ag’s to the Ab’s coupled to the carriers’ results in measurable voltage changes that are recorded in a real time manner. The calibration and the dynamic range of this device has also been determined. Both these techniques demonstrate potential as early diagnostic devices and their performance in detection of clinically relevant proteins is demonstrated.
Patent systems commonly empower courts to order accused or adjudged infringers to refrain from continuing infringing conduct in the future. Some patentees file suit for the primary purpose of obtaining and enforcing an injunction against infringement by a competitor, and even in cases in which the patentee is willing to license an invention to an accused infringer for an agreed price, the indirect monetary value of an injunction against future infringement can dwarf the amount a finder of fact is likely to award as compensation for past infringement. In some of these cases, an injunction, if granted, would impose costs on accused infringers or third parties that go well beyond the more intrinsic value of the patented technology. This chapter explores the theory behind injunctive relief in patent cases, surveys the availability of this remedy in major patent systems, and suggests a general framework for courts to use when deciding whether injunctive relief is appropriate in individual cases.
This chapter describes the current state of, and normative basis for, the law of reasonable royalties among the leading jurisdictions for patent infringement litigation, as well as the principal arguments for and against various practices relating to the calculation of reasonable royalties; and for each of the major issues discussed, the chapter provides one or more recommendations. The chapter’s principal recommendation is that, when applying a “bottom-up” approach to estimating reasonable royalties, courts should replace the Georgia-Pacific factors (and analogous factors used outside the United States) with a smaller list of considerations, specifically (1) calculating the incremental value of the invention and dividing it appropriately between the parties; (2) assessing market evidence, such as comparable licenses; and (3) where feasible and cost justified, using each of these first two considerations as a “check” on the accuracy of the other
Dokuchaevite, ideally Cu8O2(VO4)3Cl3, was found in the Yadovitaya fumarole of the Second scoria cone of the North Breach of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (1975–1976), Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Dokuchaevite occurs on the crusts of various copper sulfate exhalative minerals (such as kamchatkite and euchlorine) as individual prismatic crystals. Dokuchaevite is triclinic, P
, a = 6.332(3), b = 8.204(4), c = 15.562(8) Å, α = 90.498(8), β = 97.173(7), γ = 90.896(13)°, V = 801.9(7) Å3 and R1 = 0.057. The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are (d, Å (I)(hkl): (15.4396)(18)(00
1), (5.5957)(43)(012), (4.8571)(33)(
1), (3.1929) (29)(023), (2.7915)(30)(202), (2.5645)(21)(032), (2.5220)(100)(1
0), (2.4906)(18)(130) and (2.3267)(71)(2
2). The chemical composition determined by electron-microprobe analysis is (wt.%): CuO 60.87, ZnO 0.50, FeO 0.36, V2O5 19.85, As2O5 6.96, SO3 0.44, MoO3 1.41, SiO2 0.20, P2O5 0.22, Cl 10.66, –O = Cl2 2.41, total 99.06. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 17 anions per formula unit is (Cu7.72Zn0.06Fe0.05)Σ7.83(V2.20As0.61Mo0.10S0.06P0.03Si0.03)Σ3.03O13.96Cl3.04.
The crystal structure of dokuchaevite represents a new structure type with eight Cu sites, which demonstrate the remarkable diversity of Cu2+ mixed-ligand coordination environments. The crystal structure of dokuchaevite is based on OCu4 tetrahedra that share common corners thus forming [O2Cu6]8+ single chains. Two of the eight symmetrically independent copper atoms do not form Cu–O bonds with additional oxygen atoms, and thus are not part of the OCu4 tetrahedra, but provide the three-dimensional integrity of the [O2Cu6]8+ chains into a framework. TO4 mixed tetrahedral groups are located within the cavities of the framework. The structural formula of dokuchaevite can be represented as Cu2[Cu6O2](VO4)3Cl3.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
In 2010, South Africa (SA) hosted the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup (soccer). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) used the SA mass gathering medicine (MGM) resource model to predict resource allocation. This study analyzed data from the World Cup and compared them with the resource allocation predicted by the SA mass gathering model.
Prospectively, data were collected from patient contacts at 9 venues across the Western Cape province of South Africa. Required resources were based on the number of patients seeking basic life support (BLS), intermediate life support (ILS), and advanced life support (ALS). Overall patient presentation rates (PPRs) and transport to hospital rates (TTHRs) were also calculated.
BLS services were required for 78.4% (n = 1279) of patients and were consistently overestimated using the SA mass gathering model. ILS services were required for 14.0% (n = 228), and ALS services were required for 3.1% (n = 51) of patients. Both ILS and ALS services, and TTHR were underestimated at smaller venues.
The MGM predictive model overestimated BLS requirements and inconsistently predicted ILS and ALS requirements. MGM resource models, which are heavily based on predicted attendance levels, have inherent limitations, which may be improved by using research-based outcomes.
Following the electoral victory of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in Assam, noted intellectual and political commentator Udayon Misra wrote an important article in the Economic and Political Weekly where he argued that the electoral victory of BJP was not a victory of Hindutva but that of identity politics, which has always been centred on immigration, land, and language. He further added that the ‘highly syncretic and plural nature of Assamese society’ makes it difficult for any kind of polarization on religious line to occur in Assam. This is a perspective that has often been articulated by various secular scholars in the region, especially Assam.
While it would be desirable to subscribe to this perspective, it seems to be born out of a reluctance to acknowledge the fact that there has been a growing consolidation and hardening of religious identities in Assam, and in other parts of northeast India, over the last several decades, and that it has had some success even in mediating and, at times, obfuscating or blurring the identity politics centred on land, livelihood, and language. If the popular media and other articulations are anything to go by, the extent to which ‘Assamese’ identity in its present form may be as much anti-Muslim and anti-Christian as anti-immigrant is something worth thinking about. The consolidation and hardening of religious identities cannot be seen as an aberration in an otherwise ‘syncretic and plural’ religious landscape. Rather, it is the product of a longer history of how religion came to be recast as identity in northeast India and it is to this history that the present chapter turns to.
This chapter traverses different communities and spaces, and points towards certain general processes and trends that have reshaped the religious and cultural landscape of the region. Not all communities or spaces in the region have been refered to in this narrative, and it has the limitations that any attempt to draw on generalities would have. Yet it is an attempt to push the understanding of the region beyond the familiar ruminations on territoriality, ethnicity, and conflict, and make sense of a process that has been hitherto unexplored.
High body fat in apparently lean individuals is a commonly described phenotype in individuals of Asian descent, but very limited consolidated scientific literature is available on this topic. This phenotype is known as ‘normal-weight obesity’ and may explain the large disparity between the prevalence of obesity (as measured by BMI) and diabetes that occurs in these individuals. Routine use of obesity indicators that best predict body fat content would help to identify these individuals in clinical practice. In this debate, we would like to highlight that even though fat and BMI have a good correlation, as suggested by Kryst et al. (2019), clinicians, public health researchers and policymakers should consider the use of these indicators in conjunction with each other rather than individually. Future research is needed on pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options in these individuals which will help to further characterize and manage these patients appropriately.
Obesity indicators are useful clinical tools in the measurement of obesity, but it is important for clinicians to appropriately interpret their values in individuals with different ethnicities. Future research is needed to identify optimal cut-offs that can predict the occurrence of cardio-metabolic comorbidities in individuals of different ethnic descent. Assessment of more recently developed indicators like the Edmonton Obesity Staging System and visceral adipose tissue are able to appropriately identify metabolically at-risk individuals.
Evidence has been slowly accumulating that the urban home gardens of immigrants or transnational migrants in the USA conserve food plant diversity with roots in the developing world. Published species lists for home gardens indicate that, at least at the species level, this diversity is not novel but consists of widely grown, culturally important plant species that are also available through the horticultural trade. In 2018, we returned to the home garden of a Mexican-origin household in Chicago and confirmed the identity of a plant provisionally identified as Jaltomata darcyana during an earlier inventory of the garden. A recently named species of Central America, J. darcyana has not been previously recorded in cultivation. Collection of this species from a Chicago garden suggests that urban gardens may harbor other novel species awaiting documentation by urban ecologists and botanists.
Objective: To determine the relationship between intraoperative flash visual evoked potential (FVEP) monitoring and visual function. Methods: Intraoperative FVEPs were recorded from electrodes placed in the scalp overlying the visual cortex (Oz) after flashing red light stimulation delivered by Cadwell LED stimulating goggles in 89 patients. Restrictive filtering (typically 10–100 Hz), optimal reject window settings, mastoid reference site, total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA), and stable retinal stimulation (ensured by concomitant electroretinogram [ERG] recording) were used to enhance FVEP reproducibility. Results: The relationship between FVEP amplitude change and visual outcome was determined from 179 eyes. One eye had a permanent intraoperative FVEP loss despite stable ERG, and this eye had new, severe postoperative visual dysfunction. Seven eyes had transient significant FVEP change (>50% amplitude decrease that recovered by the end of surgery), but only one of those had a decrease in postoperative visual acuity. FVEP changes in all eight eyes (one permanent FVEP loss plus seven transient FVEP changes) were related to surgical manipulation. In each case the surgeon was promptly informed of the FVEP deterioration and took remedial action. The other eyes did not have FVEP changes, and none of those eyes had new postoperative visual deficits. Conclusions: Our FVEP findings relate to visual outcome with a sensitivity and specificity of 1.0. New methods for rapidly acquiring reproducible FVEP waveforms allowed for timely reporting of significant FVEP change resulting in prompt surgical action. This may have accounted for the low postoperative visual deficit rate (1%) in this series.