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While contemporary scholarship on Erasmus’ Praise of Folly has been unusually productive, it has dealt primarily with structure and theme. It appears, however, that not nearly enough attention has been paid by scholars to the Listrius commentary which, after the 1515 Basel edition, became a standard appendage to the work. A close analysis of the commentary demonstrates that while at times it is ostentatious and irrelevant, its critical and interpretative remarks are often quite valuable. It can be seen not only as an objective statement of Erasmus' satiric method, but also as a kind of humanist courtesy book.
Almost from its inception, printers and translators made use of the commentary.
The evolution of material wealth-based inequality is an important topic in archaeological research. While a number of explanatory models have been proposed, rarely have they been adequately tested. A significant challenge to testing such models concerns our ability to define distinct, temporally short-term, residential occupations in the archaeological record. Sites often lack evidence for temporally persistent inequality, or, when present, the palimpsest nature of the deposits often make it difficult to define the processes of change on scales that are fine enough to evaluate nuanced model predictions. In this article, we use the detailed record of Housepit 54 from the Bridge River site, interior British Columbia, to evaluate several alternative hypotheses regarding the evolution of persistent material wealth-based inequality. Results of our analyses indicate that inequality appeared abruptly coincident with a decline in intra-house cooperation associated with population packing and the initiation of periodic subsistence stress. We conclude that persistent inequality in this context was a byproduct of altered social networks linked to a Malthusian transition and ceiling.
The Protoplanetary Discussions conference—held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th–11th—included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.
The neurophysiological control of the erectile process is under the influence of central and peripheral processes. At least three kinds of erection can be distinguished in man: central, reflexogenic, and nocturnal types. Emission, as the first phase of ejaculation, is a sympathetic spinal cord reflex. The spermatozoa undergo final maturation in the epididymis and are stored there prior to ejaculation. The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in the efferent pathway of the ejaculatory reflex. The spinal network plays a significant role in processing and directing afferent and efferent information in the ejaculatory process. The ejaculatory-related cerebral network includes the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi), the posterodorsal medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeApd), and the parvocellular subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPFp). An improved understanding of the complex influences on ejaculation may open new therapeutic strategies for ejaculatory disorders.
Research studies for the treatment of the putative prodromal phase of
psychotic disorders have begun to appear
To obtain preliminary evidence of the short-term efficacy and safety of
aripiprazole treatment in people with the psychosis prodrome
Fifteen participants meeting prodrome criteria (mean age 17.1 years,
s.d.=5.5) enrolled in an open-label, single-site trial with
fixed-flexible dosing of aripiprazole (5–30 mg/day) for 8 weeks
In the mixed-effects repeated-measures analysis, improvement from
baseline on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms total score was statistically
significant by the first week. No participant converted to psychosis and
13 completed treatment. Neuropsychological measures showed no consistent
improvement; mean weight gain was 1.2 kg. Akathisia emerged in 8
participants, but the mean Barnes Akathisia Scale score fell to baseline
levels by the final visit. Adverse events were otherwise minimal
Aripiprazole shows a promising efficacy and safety profile for the
psychosis prodrome. Placebo-controlled studies are indicated
Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is an uncommon benign lesion which has been reported at several sites in the head and neck. We present a case of a GCRG of the cricoid cartilage not previously described in the literature. It must be differentiated from the brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism and true giant cell tumours of bone. These were excluded on clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological grounds. The lesion responded well to surgical debulking and curettage and the patient remained disease-free 15 months after treatment.
We investigated linkage between schizophrenia and the loci DXYS14, DXYS17, and MIC2 within the pseudoautosomal region in 85 families with two or more siblings suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A maximum lod score of 2.44 was reached at MIC2, with a dominant model of inheritance at a recombination fraction of 0.367 in females and 0.046 in males (a F: M sex ratio > 1, i.e. opposite to that expected with a pseudoautosomal locus). Evidence consistent with linkage (P = 0.01) was also obtained with a sibling pair analysis at the MIC2 locus. These data do not support (although they do not definitively exclude) a locus within the pseudoautosomal region; they are consistent with the presence of a gene that predisposes to schizophrenia in the sex-specific regions of the X and Y chromosomes.
Objective: This study is designed to evaluate a hospital based integrated service for the comprehensive delivery of care and treatment to patients with schizophrenia, on epidemeological, cost effectiveness, and quality of life parameters. Methods: All patients with an ICD9 diagnosis of schizophrenia who received services from the St. Lomans Catchment area during a 2 year period were evaluated for service utilization during a subsequent 2 year period. Data was collected on basic demographics for the epidemiological aspects of the study, and for all aspects of services utilized, eg. day hospital attendance, inpatient bed useage, time spent with psychiatrist, community nurse visit or clinic visit. Costs for all services were calculated using disaggregate cost data. Quality of life of the patients was assessed through the Lehman quality of life questionnaire administered to every third identified patient. Results: 572 schizophrenic patients were identified from the case register and case records search. An analysis of the data indicated no difference in age of first contact with services on rural/urban or male/female comparisons contrasting with previously reported findings. Males tend to utilize proportionately more services in both rural and urban settings. Inpatient hospitalizations contributed the most to per patient costs and a small group of patients, comprising less than 5% of the total population, consumed 10% of the total costs consumed by all diagnostic groups and 30% of the costs of all schizophrenics. Non-hospitalized patients experienced the highest quality of life ratings. Conclusions: Hospital based community services to schizophrenics can be run cost-effectively. There remains a small subgroup of schizophrenic patients who are hard to place or treat in the community and they consume a disporportionate amount of the hospital's costs. Services that attempt to establish patients in the community can do so cost effectively provided there are hospital inpatient beds available as a back up. The benefits of this type of comprehensive service delivery to the schizophrenic population served are demonstrated.
A prospective microbiological surveillance (PMS) program was developed in a comprehensive hospital-wide effort for control of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This PMS program entailed: 1) active identification of colonized and infected patients; 2) application of a screening microbiologic system for MRSA; 3) isolation of colonized and infected patients; 4) antibiotic decolonization of MRSA; and 5) educational efforts. The PMS program was studied over three and one half years for its contribution to infection control of MRSA, early identification of nosocomial MRSA outbreaks, use of the highest yield surveillance culture sites, and cost effectiveness. Following initiation of the PMS program in December 1982, during an MRSA outbreak, the frequency of new MRSA cases declined from 14 to none by the end of a 3-month pilot study. The frequency of new MRSA cases stabilized at approximately 2 per month until October 1983, when the PMS system allowed prompt detection of a new outbreak of 11 cases. Following isolation and antibiotic decolonization, the frequency of cases again declined to 3 per month. A third outbreak in December 1985 again was promptly detected and controlled. Infection to colonization ratio decreased from a maximum of 1.5 during outbreaks to a minimum of 0.17 after outbreaks. Wounds and tracheostomy sites provided the greatest yield of detection of new cases of MRSA. During one 15-month period, 35 of the 43 new cases were detected initially at wounds and tracheostomy sites. No new MRSA cases were detected by a positive axillary or nares site alone. The estimated quarterly cost of outbreaks and infection paralleled the quarterly frequency of new MRSA cases. The cost of managing MRSA outbreaks and treating MRSA infections versus the cost of implementing the PMS program suggested that the PMS program may be cost effective. This prospective microbiological surveillance program may be applicable to other institutions for hospital-wide infection control of MRSA.
Candida species are seldom considered as a cause of suppurative peripheral thrombophlebitis. During a 15-month period in a 291-bed acute-care hospital, candidal suppurative peripheral thrombophlebitis developed in seven patients. All patients had fever, a tender palpable cord, and Candida species isolated from resected veins and/or pus expressed at the catheter entrance site. Four patients had candidemia. None were neutropenic or recipients of corticosteroids. All had concomitant or preceding bacterial infections, and had received a median of 5 antibiotics (range 3 to 9) for at least 2 weeks. Five of seven had documented preceding candidal colonization associated with broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Catheter sites had not been routinely rotated and local catheter site care was deficient. Risk factors of antibiotics and duration of hospitalization were fewer in patients with bacterial suppurative thrombophlebitis. Combined segmental venous resection and intravenous amphotericin B appears to be the most rational therapy for this nosocomial fungal infection.