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To describe a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) outbreak and interventions to prevent transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of a CRE outbreak among patients at a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH).
Microbiology records at LTACH A from March 2009 through February 2011 were reviewed to identify CRE transmission cases and cases admitted with CRE. CRE bacteremia episodes were identified during March 2009–July 2011. Biweekly CRE prevalence surveys were conducted during July 2010–July 2011, and interventions to prevent transmission were implemented, including education and auditin? of staff and isolation and cohorting of CRE patients with dedicated nursing staff and shared medical equipment. Trends were evaluated using weighted linear or Poisson regression. CRE transmission cases were included in a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for acquisition. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the blaKPC gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates.
Ninety-nine CRE transmission cases, 16 admission cases (from 7 acute care hospitals), and 29 CRE bacteremia episodes were identified. Significant reductions were observed in CRE prevalence (49% vs 8%), percentage of patients screened with newly detected CRE (44% vs 0%), and CRE bacteremia episodes (2.5 vs 0.0 per 1,000 patient-days). Cases were more likely to have received β-lactams, have diabetes, and require mechanical ventilation. All tested isolates were KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, and nearly all isolates were genetically related.
CRE transmission can be reduced in LTACHs through surveillance testing and targeted interventions. Sustainable reductions within and across healthcare facilities may require a regional public health approach.
To evaluate the risk of nosocomial transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19) infection to healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to patients with transient aplastic crisis (TAC) caused by acute B19 infection.
1,000-bed, urban teaching hospital in Atlanta, Georgia.
Eighty-seven exposed HCWs who cared for two patients with TAC prior to the time they were isolated and a comparison group of 88 unexposed HCWs from wards or clinics where the patients did not receive care.
Self-administered questionnaire on hospital contact with index patients, B19 community risk factors, and signs and symptoms suggestive of B19 disease. Serology for B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies measured by antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
1 (3.1%) of the 32 nonimmune exposed HCWs had serologic evidence of recent B19 infection compared to 3 (8.1%) of the 37 nonimmune HCWs in the comparison group (P=.6). In a subgroup analysis of exposed HCWs who cared for index patients during the time when the virus load was expected to be greatest, a recent infection rate of 5.8% (1/17) was found among nonimmune HCWs.
The finding of similar rates of recent infection in nonimmune exposed and unexposed HCWs suggests that transmission to HCWs did not occur, despite failure to place the patients in isolation at the onset of hospitalization.
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