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Word-initial obstruent-liquid clusters, frequent in English (e.g., blue), are prohibited in Korean. Korean learners of English perceptually repair illicit word-initial consonant sequences with an epenthetic vowel [ʊ]. Thus they might perceive blue as b[ʊ]lue, and, at least initially, also represent it lexically as a disyllabic word. We ask whether the sound sequences permitted in one's L1 influence the way L2 words are represented in the mental lexicon. If they do, we predict that in a lexical decision task, Korean learners will accept nonwords containing epenthetic vowels ([bʊˈluː] for blue) as real English words more often than English listeners. These predictions were confirmed: we observed high error rates on test nonwords ([bʊˈluː]) by the Korean participants only, accompanied by few errors on control nonwords ([bɪˈluː]), suggesting that learners’ lexical representations for familiar L2 words can be activated by nonwords that obey their L1 phonotactic grammar.
Although atom probe tomography (APT) reconstructions do not directly influence the local elemental analysis, any structural inferences from APT volumes demand a reliable reconstruction of the point cloud. Accurate estimation of the reconstruction parameters is crucial to obtain reliable spatial scaling. In the current work, a new automated approach of calibrating atom probe reconstructions is developed using only one correlative projection electron microscopy (EM) image. We employed an algorithm that implements a 2D cross-correlation of microstructural features observed in both the APT reconstructions and the corresponding EM image. We apply this protocol to calibrate reconstructions in a Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based semiconductor and in a Co-based superalloy. This work enables us to couple chemical precision to structural information with relative ease.
To compare different techniques of endoscope sampling to assess residual bacterial contamination.
The endoscopy unit of an 1,100-bed university hospital performing ~13,000 endoscopic procedures annually.
In total, 4 sampling techniques, combining flushing fluid with or without a commercial endoscope brush, were compared in an endoscope model. Based on these results, sterile physiological saline flushing with or without PULL THRU brush was selected for evaluation on 40 flexible endoscopes by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurement and bacterial culture. Acceptance criteria from the French National guideline (<25 colony-forming units [CFU] per endoscope and absence of indicator microorganisms) were used as part of the evaluation.
On biofilm-coated PTFE tubes, physiological saline in combination with a PULL THRU brush generated higher mean ATP values (2,579 relative light units [RLU]) compared with saline alone (1,436 RLU; P=.047). In the endoscope samples, culture yield using saline plus the PULL THRU (mean, 43 CFU; range, 1–400 CFU) was significantly higher than that of saline alone (mean, 17 CFU; range, 0–500 CFU; P<.001). In samples obtained using the saline+PULL THRU brush method, ATP values of samples classified as unacceptable were significantly higher than those of samples classified as acceptable (P=.001).
Physiological saline flushing combined with PULL THRU brush to sample endoscopes generated higher ATP values and increased the yield of microbial surveillance culture. Consequently, the acceptance rate of endoscopes based on a defined CFU limit was significantly lower when the saline+PULL THRU method was used instead of saline alone.
In this paper, I relativize the widespread representation of the generalized relativism of 1970s philosophy. I will show how the group of thinkers of this period often referred to as the ‘French Theory’ movement is not always defined by the affirmation of a radical relativism, but rather by the obstinate search for an original ‘reality’ (as thing in itself) capable of competing and denouncing the false ‘reality’ constructed by reason. To demonstrate this, I will focus on the journey of a philosopher who is emblematic of this period, namely Jean-François Lyotard. I will demonstrate that Lyotard claims a form of realism, which I will qualify as ‘tragic realism.’ Then, I will compare this ‘tragic realism’ with the more contemporary forms of realism (speculative, phenomenological, etc.).
Depuis une décennie, la localisation optimale des services publics a fait l’objet de publications diverses [9, 10, 20]; ces études se sont particulièrement concentrées sur la formulation mathématique des problèmes de localisation. Les quelques applications concernent principalement les services d’urgence[l, 16, 22], de santé ou récréatifs. Mais, dans la plupart des cas, le schéma d’utilisation des services publics par le consommateur est négligé. Or, dans la mesure où le lieu de consommation ainsi que la quantité consommée sont choisis par l’utilisateur, il convient de percevoir au mieux non seulement les exigences des services décideurs mais également les besoins et le comportement de la clientèle.
C’est pourquoi, le but de cette étude est de mieux comprendre le comportement des usagers d’un service public – celui des bureaux de poste – par l’estimation de leur fonction de demande, c’est-à-dire la quantité de service consommée par unité de temps; en d’autres termes, il s’agit de mettre en évidence les principaux facteurs qui déterminent le niveau d’utilisation du service postal en milieu urbain. Si l’organisation du service postal belge est bien connue, aucune donnée relative aux usagers n’est actuellement disponible.
Dès le début du XXe siècle, l’édification des écoles primaires à Etterbeek suit le peuplement de la commune ; la construction des nouveaux quartiers engendre une demande croissante et nécessite la création de nouvelles installations scolaires. Le choix des sites d’implantation des écoles libres et officielles a été guidé par (i) la densité de population des différents quartiers d’Etterbeek, et (ii) le hasard des terrains disponibles au moment où le besoin d’un établissement scolaire supplémentaire se fait sentir. Il paraît donc intéressant d’évaluer comment ce service public satisfait la demande en termes de quantité et de coût.
L’implantation optimale d’établissements scolaires en milieu urbain a fait l’objet de quelques rares publications, principalement aux Etats-Unis; celles-ci s’attachent plus spécialement aux critères de sélection des sites d’implantation [5,8], à la détermination de l’aire de service des écoles[13,14], à la modélisation d’un système de localisation optimal par l’intermédiaire d’un modèle de transport , ou de programmes linéaires [2,3,6,12,14].
Sensory structures (sensilla) of insects are present in high number in the antennae are important for perceiving environmental cues. Thus, sensilla play an important role in the localization, discrimination, and acceptance of a possible host by parasitoid insects. The sensilla, classified according to their shape, size, and distribution, may also show sexual dimorphism in insects. The types and distribution of antennal sensilla in female and male parasitoid Trichospilus pupivorus (Ferriere, 1930) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were evaluated. T. pupivorus females had longer antennae than males. Both males and females have ten sensilla types with higher abundance of placoid sensilla in females, which suggest a possible functional dimorphism.
This special issue assembles five articles ensuing from a conference on “The Man and the Machine: When Systems Take Decisions Autonomously”, which took place on June 26 and 27, 2015, at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
The aim of the conference was to explore the broader implications of artificial intelligence, machine learning and autonomous robots and vehicles. Alphabet's Deep Mind is just one example about Whom we know, at least a little, and who, we are told, will be good. Autonomous vehicles are also about to enter the market and our phones have begun to verbalize at us. Private drones are being regulated by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The five papers in this special issue address some of the legal issues the broader development raises.
The first article is on “The Implications of Modern Business-Entity Law for the Regulation of Autonomous Systems” and is written by Shawn Bayern.
This research examines obstacles faced by older people living with HIV in maintaining their significant social ties (family, friends) in the light of a double theoretical framework, inter-sectionality and the course of life. Favoring a qualitative methodology, this research is based on in-depth, semi-directed interviews with a diverse sample of 38 people living with HIV, aged 50-73 years. Analysis reveals that a significant proportion of participants have experienced ruptures or deterioration of close ties with intimates at the level of family or friends. The principal factors behind these difficulties are the past and present stigma associated with HIV and /or other social positions, long-term effects of HIV, issues related to aging and crosscutting effects of HIV and aging.
The International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) aims to foster scientific collaboration and promote twin research on a global scale by working to expand the resources of twin registries around the world and make them available to researchers who adhere to established guidelines for international collaboration. Our vision is to create an unprecedented scientific network of twin registries that will advance knowledge in ways that are impossible for individual registries, and includes the harmonization of data. INTR will also promote a broad range of activities, including the development of a website, formulation of data harmonization protocols, creation of a library of software tools for twin studies, design of a search engine to identify research partners, establishment of searchable inventories of data and biospecimens, development of templates for informed consent and data sharing, organization of symposia at International Society of Twin Studies conferences, support for scholar exchanges, and writing grant proposals.
Myocardial infarction (MI) in rats is accompanied by apoptosis in the limbic system and a behavioural syndrome similar to models of depression. We have already shown that probiotics can reduce post-MI apoptosis and designed the present study to determine if probiotics can also prevent post-MI depressive behaviour. We also tested the hypothesis that probiotics achieve their central effects through changes in the intestinal barrier. MI was induced in anaesthetised rats via 40-min transient occlusion of the left anterior coronary artery. Sham rats underwent the same surgical procedure without actual coronary occlusion. For 7 d before MI and between the seventh post-MI day and euthanasia, half the MI and sham rats were given one billion live bacterial cells of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 per d dissolved in water, while the remaining animals received only the vehicle (maltodextrin). Depressive behaviour was evaluated 2 weeks post-MI in social interaction, forced swimming and passive avoidance step-down tests. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by oral administration with fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran, 4 h before euthanasia. MI rats displayed less social interaction and impaired performance in the forced swimming and passive avoidance step-down tests compared to the sham controls (P < 0·05). Probiotics reversed the behavioural effects of MI (P < 0·05), but did not alter the behaviour of sham rats. Intestinal permeability was increased in MI rats and reversed by probiotics. In conclusion, L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 combination interferes with the development of post-MI depressive behaviour and restores intestinal barrier integrity in MI rats.
This paper describes first steps in preparation of an organic spin valve based on a perylene derivative (PTCTE) sandwiched between magnetite (Fe3O4) and cobalt (Co) ferromagnetic electrodes. MgO(001)/Fe3O4/PTCTE (450 nm)/Co devices were prepared with different Co soft deposition methods: off-axis dc-sputtering or Joule evaporation. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) studies of the Fe3O4/PTCTE/Co stacks evidence spin valve behavior with magnetically uncoupled electrodes. These results are correlated with a morphological study by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of each layer and tunneling AFM (TUNA) for the investigation of inhomogeneity of current distribution in the devices. Finally, macroscopic I-V characteristics performed on the same devices will be presented and compared with TUNA results.