To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or restrictive atrial septum may result from increased left atrial pressure, and is associated with worse outcomes following staged reconstruction due to lung dysfunction and significant hypoxaemia. Our objective was to characterise the incidence of pulmonary lymphangiectasia in cases of early mortality following stage 1 reconstructions.
An institutional cardiac surgical database was retrospectively searched for patients who died within 30 days following a stage 1 reconstruction between 1 January, 1984 and 31 December, 2013. During that period, 1669 stage 1 procedures were performed. Autopsy lung specimens were reviewed by a paediatric pathologist. Patients who died of suspected technical issues were excluded.
A total of 54 patients were included, and of these seven cases (8.5%) of pulmonary lymphangiectasia were identified. The mean estimated gestational age was 38.2±2.4 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 3.0±0.6 kg. The median interval between surgery and death was 1 day (with a range from 0 to 18 days). The atrial septum was intact in one patient (14.3%), restrictive in three patients (42.9%), and unrestrictive in three patients (42.9%).
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia may develop in hypoplastic left heart syndrome with or without a restrictive atrial septum. As standard prenatal diagnostic evaluations and treatment methods for pulmonary lymphangiectasia are limited, this may be an important contributor to early and late mortality following stage 1 reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Reducing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospitals remains a challenge. Current methods are screening of patients, isolation, and adherence to hygiene measures among healthcare workers (HCWs). More specific measures could rely on a better characterization of the contacts at risk of dissemination.
To quantify how close-proximity interactions (CPIs) affected Staphylococcus aureus dissemination.
Nested case-control study.
French long-term care facility in 2009.
Patients (n=329) and HCWs (n=261).
We recorded CPIs using electronic devices together with S. aureus nasal carriage during 4 months in all participants. Cases consisted of patients showing incident S. aureus colonization and were paired to 8 control patients who did not exhibit incident colonization at the same date. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify associations between incidence and exposure to demographic, network, and carriage covariables.
The local structure of contacts informed on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage acquisition: CPIs with more HCWs were associated with incident MRSA colonization in patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.17] for 1 more HCW), as well as longer CPI durations (1.03 [1.01–1.06] for a 1-hour increase). Joint analysis of carriage and contacts showed increased carriage acquisition in case of CPI with another colonized individual (OR, 1.55 [1.14–2.11] for 1 more HCW). Global network measurements did not capture associations between contacts and carriage.
Electronically recorded CPIs inform on the risk of MRSA carriage, warranting more study of in-hospital contact networks to design targeted intervention strategies.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(8):922–929
This paper analyzes the loss allocation to first, second, and third loss positions in European collateralized debt obligation transactions. The quality of the underlying asset pool plays a predominant role for the loss allocation. A lower asset pool quality induces the originator to take a higher first loss position, but, in a synthetic transaction, a smaller third loss position. The share of expected default losses, borne by the first loss position, is largely independent of asset pool quality but lower in securitizations of corporate loans than in those of corporate bonds. Originators with a good rating and low Tobin’s Q prefer synthetic transactions.
Accumulation of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in bone has been shown to be associated with reduced bone quality in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high bone concentrations of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine as well as a low methylation capacity are related to an impaired bone morphology in humans. Concentrations of homocysteine and its precursors S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine were measured in femoral bone samples of eighty-two males and females (age 71 (sd 8) years) who underwent elective hip arthroplasty. Cancellous bone structure was analysed by histomorphometry. In addition, blood was sampled to measure serum concentrations of homocysteine. Results of bone and serum analyses were grouped for individuals with high or low bone concentrations of homocysteine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine, as well as for individuals with a high or a low methylation capacity, which is indicated by a low or a high S-adenosylhomocysteine:S-adenosylmethionine ratio (n 41, each). Histomorphometry showed a higher trabecular separation and a lower trabecular thickness, trabecular number and trabecular area in individuals with high bone concentrations of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine compared with individuals with low bone concentrations of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine. There was no association between the S-adenosylhomocysteine:S-adenosylmethionine ratio and bone morphology. It was found that 48 % of bone homocysteine was bound to the collagen of the extracellular bone matrix. Blood analyses demonstrated a significant correlation between serum and bone homocysteine. The results of the present study indicate an association between altered bone morphology and elevated bone concentrations of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine, but not between altered bone morphology and methylation capacity.
Efficient uptake and channelling of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical cell functions. Evidence is emerging that proteins are important mediators of LCFA-trafficking into cells and various proteins have been suggested to be involved in this process. Amongst these proteins is a family of membrane-associated proteins termed fatty acid transport proteins (FATP). So far six members of this family, designated FATP 1–6, have been characterized. FATP 1, 2 and 6 show a highly-conserved AMP-binding region that participates in the activation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) to form their acyl-CoA derivatives. The mechanisms by which FATP mediate LCFA uptake are not well understood, but several studies provide evidence that uptake of LCFA across cellular membranes is closely linked to acyl-CoA synthetase activity. It is proposed that FATP indirectly enhance LCFA uptake by activating VLCFA to their CoA esters, which are required to maintain the typical structure of lipid rafts in cellular membranes. Recent work has shown that the structural integrity of lipid rafts is essential for cellular LCFA uptake. This effect might be exerted by proteins, e.g. caveolin-1 and FAT/CD36, that use lipid rafts as platforms and bind or transport LCFA. The proposed molecular mechanisms await further experimental investigation.
Siliconoxynitride layers with thicknesses between 5 and 10 nm were grown on (100) oriented silicon by rapid thermal processing (RTP) using either N2O or NH3 as nitridant. In order to study the trapping behaviour at the interface and in the insulator bulk, capacitance-voltage (CV) and current-voltage (IV) measurements have been performed combined with different magnitudes of Fowler-Nordheim stress. In addition, Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) has been applied for interface state detection. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) has been used to obtain depth profiles for Si, N, O and C. The deconvolution of the AES signal displays significant peak contributions related to intermedium oxidation states. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was successfully applied for hydrogen detection in buried SiOxNy thin films.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.