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The first meeting of the IntCal04 working group took place at Queen's University Belfast from April 15 to 17, 2002. The participants are listed as co-authors of this report. The meeting considered criteria for the acceptance of data into the next official calibration dataset, the importance of including reliable estimates of uncertainty in both the radiocarbon ages and the cal ages, and potential methods for combining datasets. This preliminary report summarizes the criteria that were discussed, but does not yet give specific recommendations for inclusion or exclusion of individual datasets.
Because horsenettle and tall ironweed are difficult to control in cool-season grass pastures, research was conducted in Tennessee and Kentucky in 2010 and 2011 to examine the efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor on these weeds. Aminocyclopyrachlor was evaluated at 49 and 98 g ai ha−1 alone and in mixtures with 2,4-D amine at 371 and 742 g ae ha−1. Aminopyralid was also included as a comparison treatment at 88 g ai ha−1. Treatments were applied at three POST timings to horsenettle and two POST timings to tall ironweed. By 1 yr after treatment (YAT) horsenettle was controlled 74% with aminocyclopyrachlor plus 2,4-D applied late POST (LPOST) at 98 + 742 g ha−1. By 1 YAT, tall ironweed was controlled ≥ 93% by aminocyclopyrachlor applied early POST (EPOST) or LPOST, at rates as low as 49 g ha−1. Similar control was achieved with aminopyralid applied LPOST. Both aminocyclopyrachlor and aminopyralid were found to reduce horsenettle and tall ironweed biomass the following year. Moreover, all LPOST applications of aminocyclopyrachlor alone or in mixtures with 2,4-D prevented regrowth of tall ironweed at 1 YAT. Based on these studies, a LPOST herbicide application in August or September when soil moisture is adequate is recommended for control of horsenettle and tall ironweed in cool-season grass pastures.
The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) is designed to perform an all-sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. It will create a rigid astrometric catalog of 4 × 107 stars with 5 < mV < 15. For bright stars, 5 < mV < 9, FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to < 50 μas, with proper motion errors < 50 μas/yr. For fainter stars, 9 < mV < 15, FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to < 500 μas, with proper motion errors < 500 μas/yr. It will also collect photometric data on these 4 × 107 stars in four Sloan Digital Sky Survey colors. NASA selected FAME to be one of five MIDEX missions funded for a concept study. In October 1999, NASA selected FAME for launch in 2004 as the MIDEX-4 mission in its Explorer program.
The success of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention programs in intensive care units (ICUs) has led to the expansion of surveillance at many hospitals. We sought to compare non-ICU CLABSI (nCLABSI) rates with national reports and describe methods of surveillance at several participating US institutions.
Design and Setting.
An electronic survey of several medical centers about infection surveillance practices and rate data for non-ICU Patients.
Ten tertiary care hospitals.
In March 2011, a survey was sent to 10 medical centers. The survey consisted of 12 questions regarding demographics and CLABSI surveillance methodology for non-ICU patients at each center. Participants were also asked to provide available rate and device utilization data.
Hospitals ranged in size from 238 to 1,400 total beds (median, 815). All hospitals reported using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Denominators were collected by different means: counting patients with central lines every day (5 hospitals), indirectly estimating on the basis of electronic orders (n = 4), or another automated method (n = 1). Rates of nCLABSI ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 infections per 1,000 catheter-days (median, 2.5). The national rate reported by the CDC using 2009 data from the National Healthcare Surveillance Network was 1.14 infections per 1,000 catheter-days.
Only 2 hospitals were below the pooled CLABSI rate for inpatient wards; all others exceeded this rate. Possible explanations include differences in average central line utilization or hospital size in the impact of certain clinical risk factors notably absent from the definition and in interpretation and reporting practices. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether the national benchmarks are low or whether the hospitals surveyed here represent a selection of outliers.
The slit-smeared intensity of X-radiation scattered from carbon-supported metal catalysts behaves as clh−1 + c2h−3 for higher h-values in the small-angle region (h+4πλ−1 sinθ, λ + X-ray wavelength,θ + half of scattering angle, c1, c2 are constants). For three-phase systems with sharp phase boundaries, uniform electron-densities in the metal and void phases, and lamellar electrondensity fluctuations in the carbon phase, the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be described in terms of inter- and intraphase electron-density correlation functions, and can be shown to yield the observed behavior. Further assumptions are required to separate these contributions and calculate interfacial specific surfaces. SAXS measurements on Pt, Ru, Pd, and Rh/C are presented.
Epitaxial yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) films, bismuth-iron-garnet (BIG) films, and YIG/BIG heterostructures have been grown on  oriented single crystalline gadolinium-gallium-garnet (GGG) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), using a KrF excimer laser system. The films under study were grown over a range of temperatures from 600°C to 800°C and at 100 mTorr oxygen partial pressure. The effects of oxygen partial pressure during cooling on the structure, composition and magnetic properties of the films were investigated, employing X-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy coupled with He ion channeling, and vibration sample magnetometry. All specimens under study indicated that, independent of the film-substrate mismatch, the grown films were single crystalline in the  orientation. Preliminary studies on the effects of cooling oxygen partial pressure on the film structure indicate an increase in lattice distortion in the direction normal to the film surface with decreasing pressure. The magnetic properties of the films are comparable to the YIG bulk properties, and all films indicated in plane preferential magnetization, independent of cooling conditions.
We have studied the properties of two types of transparent conducting oxides grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on quartz substrates. We have grown films of ITO with resistivity as low as 250 μΩ-cm and with absorption coefficient < 600 cm−1 throughout the visible spectrum. Even films deposited at room temperature can have ρ < 500 μΩ-cm, although the optical transmission characteristics are worse than those of commercially available ITO. Important parameters governing film quality include the oxygen partial pressure during film deposition and substrate temperature. GaInO3 is a recently identified transparent conducting material which is structurally distinct from ITO. Films have been grown with no intentional dopants and with either Ge substitution for Ga or Sn substitution for In. Doping concentrations as high as 10 at. % have been studied. There is no evidence for dopant segregation. Films with resistivities as low as 3 μΩ-cm have been achieved, and the absorption coefficient can be less than 500 cm−1 throughout the entire visible spectrum.
One of the critical components used in the display device is the transparent conducting electrode. A new candidate for the transparent conductor, GaInO3 containing a tetrahedrally coordinated Ga site was identified recently, and shows good promise of improved optical transmission in the blue wavelength over ITO due to a high band gap ˜3.3 eV. Thin films of GaInO3 with cation dopants Ge for Ga, and Sn for In, respectively, have been prepared using dc reactive magnetron sputtering. Among the growth parameters, oxygen partial pressure plays the decisive role in affecting the film quality. A post-anneal in H2-rich atmosphere at 300C effectively reduced the oxygen content and lowered the resistivity to ∼3.0 mΩ-cm; however, the final resistivity appears to be insensitive to cation dopant concentrations. Concurrently, Hall measurements indicated a carrier concentration in the mid 1019 range for all films. Our structural analysis by x-ray and SEM has suggested that a limited Sn solubility in the film to less than 5 %. Doping appears to be due both to oxygen vacancies and aliovalent ion substitutions. The optical transmission of this new material is indeed superior to ITO over the entire visible spectrum, especially in the green and blue wavelengths. More work is underway to identify appropriate dopants for attaining better film conductivity.
Our research is focused on developing inorganic molecular sieve membranes for light gas separations such as hydrogen recovery and natural gas purification, and organic molecular separations, such as chiral enantiomers. We focus on zinc phosphates because of the ease in crystallization of new phases and the wide range of pore sizes and shapes obtained. With our hybrid systems of zinc phosphate crystalline phases templated by amine molecules, we are interested in better understanding the association of the template molecules to the inorganic phase, and how the organic transfers its size, shape, and (in some cases) chirality to the bulk. Furthermore, the new porous phases can also be synthesized as thin films on metal oxide substrates. These films allow us to make membranes from our organic/inorganic hybrid systems, suitable for diffusion experiments. Characterization techniques for both the bulk phases and the thin films include powder X-ray diffraction, TGA, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS).
This study focuses on a Co-based nanocrystalline alloy (Co84.55Fe4.45Zr7B4) with potential for long-term high temperature use. As an indication of their performance, core losses were measured on toroidal samples using a Walker AC permeameter over a frequency range of 0.1 to 500 kHz, at induction amplitudes of 100, 300, and 500 mT, and temperatures from 22 to 300°C. For a given frequency and maximum induction amplitude, the losses were invariant as a function of measurement temperature. Vibrating sample magnetometry provided the magnetization and hysteretic losses as a function of temperature. As the temperature of the alloy was raised to 300°C from room temperature, the saturation magnetization (120 emu/g)was reduced by less than 15%. A toroid was aged at 300°C for up to 300 hours and core loss measured as a function of aging time at the previously mentioned frequencies and induction amplitudes. The losses were invariant over the aging time.