Plan and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to examine the various bulk and surface structural changes observed in crystalline silicon following melting caused by the absorption of 1-μm pulses that are 4 ps in duration. We show for the first time that for picosecond excitation polycrystalline Si (p-Si), rather than singlecrystal Si, is always formed when the melt resolidifies. Specifically, cross-sectional TEM analyses indicate that a thin layer of fine-grained p-Si is formed at the interface of the melted region with the bulk. When the incident fluence is more than 10% above the melting threshold, the region between the surface and the fine-grained p-Si regrows as largergrain p-Si. This is the first reported observation of a large-grain p-Si layer on a fine-grain p-Si base in crystalline material. If the incident fluence is less than 10% above threshold, the region near the surface resolidifies as amorphous Si, but the narrow layer of fine-grained p-Si remains at the interface with the single crystal material. Present models for resolidification must be modified to account for these features.