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To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
To describe the effect of supplemental psychotropic medications, specifically anxiolytics with sedative/hypnotics (ASH) combined with lamotrigine (LTG) on stabilization of symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder.
Symptomatic patients participating in two LTG maintenance trials were classified post-hoc as those initiating LTG as monotherapy (n=313) or as adjunctive therapy (n=814) and further characterized by supplemental add-on therapies received during an open-label treatment phase. Patients were considered stabilized if they reached a stable dose of LTG monotherapy (100–200 mg/day) and had a Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale score ≤3 for at least 4 weeks. Stabilization rates were compared across initial- and supplemental-treatment groups.
Patients who initiated and were maintained on LTG monotherapy were stabilized at a slightly higher rate compared with those taking LTG adjunctive therapy (55% vs 48%; P=.080). Stabilization rates were numerically higher for LTG monotherapy patients who later received only ASH as supplemental medication compared with LTG monotherapy throughout, but this difference was not significant (66% vs 55%; P=.271). Stabilization rates were significantly higher for monotherapy patients who later received ASH alone versus other psychotropic medications (66% vs 28%; P=.001). For patients initiating LTG as adjunctive therapy, adding ASH alone resulted in significantly higher stabilization rates than adding another psychotropic medication (62% vs 33%; P<.001).
LTG and adjunctive treatment with ASH may be useful in the treatment of acute mood symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder.
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