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We report on the design and first results from experiments looking at the formation of radiative shocks on the Shenguang-II (SG-II) laser at the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics in China. Laser-heating of a two-layer CH/CH–Br foil drives a $\sim 40$ km/s shock inside a gas cell filled with argon at an initial pressure of 1 bar. The use of gas-cell targets with large (several millimetres) lateral and axial extent allows the shock to propagate freely without any wall interactions, and permits a large field of view to image single and colliding counter-propagating shocks with time-resolved, point-projection X-ray backlighting ($\sim 20$ μm source size, 4.3 keV photon energy). Single shocks were imaged up to 100 ns after the onset of the laser drive, allowing to probe the growth of spatial nonuniformities in the shock apex. These results are compared with experiments looking at counter-propagating shocks, showing a symmetric drive that leads to a collision and stagnation from $\sim 40$ ns onward. We present a preliminary comparison with numerical simulations with the radiation hydrodynamics code ARWEN, which provides expected plasma parameters for the design of future experiments in this facility.
Literature suggests that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) show subtle abnormalities in the cognitive control process of performance monitoring. The neural bases of performance monitoring can be measured using the error-related negaitivity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP). Thirty-six individuals with mTBI and 46 demographically similar controls completed a modified color-naming Stroop task while ERPs were recorded. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to examine the behavioral (response times [RT] and error rates) and ERP (ERN and Pe amplitudes) indices of performance monitoring. Both groups showed slower RTs and increased error rates on incongruent trials relative to congruent trials. Likewise, both groups showed more negative ERN and more positive Pe amplitude to error trials relative to correct trials. Notably, there were no significant main effects or interactions of group for behavioral and ERP measures. Subgroup and correlational analyses with post-concussive symptoms and indices of injury severity were also not significant. Findings suggest comparable performance to non-injured individuals in some aspects of cognitive control in this sample. Neuropsychological implications and comparison with other cognitive control component processes in individuals with TBI are provided. (JINS, 2012, 18, 323–333)
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