To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Severe fatigue and cognitive dysfunction are frequent symptoms in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. They can be debilitating, and often do not resolve despite improvement in haemodynamic symptoms. Our analysis was intended to assess clinical outcomes of medication treatment for these symptoms in a large, single-centre paediatric programme.
Materials and Methods
We performed a retrospective review of patients treated for fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. Patients aged 18 years or younger at the time of initial diagnosis were included. Patients who had a specific medication ordered five or more times for these symptoms were confirmed by chart review for clinical improvement. Percentage of patients with clinical improvement for each medication and overall for all medications, as well as the number of medications per patient required to achieve improvement, were assessed. Data were analysed based on gender as well. t-Test and χ2 analyses were used to assess for differences between means in variables, or specific variables.
A total of 708 patients met study criteria, of whom 517 were treated for fatigue or brain fog. Overall efficacy was 68.8%, with individual medication effectiveness ranging from 53.1 (methylphenidate) to 16.5% (atomoxetine). There was no significant difference in efficacy with respect to gender. The median number of medications used per patient was 2, without gender difference. Therapy was limited by side effects or lack of efficacy.
Medications are effective in the improvement of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction in these patients. However, trials of multiple medications may be needed before achieving clinical improvement.
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome encompasses multiple disabling symptoms that interfere with daily activities. Non-pharmacologic approaches can be insufficient and can require adjunctive medications to manage symptoms. Minimal data exist in the literature on medication outcomes in these patients. We reviewed our database for medication management outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Patients aged 18 years and younger at initial diagnosis met the inclusion criteria. All prescribed patient medications were extracted from the electronic health record, excluding medications for unrelated symptoms or comorbid diseases. Medications were grouped by symptom class consistent with our programme utilisation protocol. Within symptom classification, therapy was deemed successful when a specific dose was prescribed at least five consecutive times without changes; this was confirmed by chart review. Individual medications and overall percentage of successful therapies within symptom classifications were assessed, with further analysis by gender. t-Test, χ2, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to assess for differences in specific variables, as appropriate.
A total of 708 patients met the study criteria. The percentage of patients with effective therapy by symptom includes light-headedness (52.2%), headache (48.2%), nausea (39.1%), dysmotility (43.4%), pain (53.4%), and insomnia (42.8%). Insomnia therapy was better for females; all other therapies showed no gender difference. The median number of therapies prescribed per patient per symptom was 2 for light-headedness, headache, and insomnia, and 1 for nausea, dysmotility, and pain.
Symptoms associated with this disorder can be effectively managed with various medications. Further randomised studies are needed to better ascertain true efficacy compared with placebo.
The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate demographic and clinical features of paediatric patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in a tertiary hospital speciality clinic.
This is a retrospective review of clinical data obtained during initial outpatient evaluation.
A total of 708 patients met the evaluation criteria. Female patients outnumbered males, 3.45:1. Caucasians were over-represented at 94.1% of patients. Median age at diagnosis was 15.7 years. Joint hypermobility occurred in 57.3% of patients; 22.4% had hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; and 34.9% had hypermobility spectrum disorder. Median age of onset of symptoms was 12.6 years in patients with hypermobility versus 13.7 years in those without (p=0.0001). Median duration of symptoms was 3.3 years with hypermobility versus 1.5 years without (p<0.00001). Putative triggers included infection in 23.6% of patients, concussion in 11.4%, and surgery/trauma in 2.8%. Concurrent inflammatory disorders were noted in 5.2% of patients. Six symptoms comprised 80% of initial patient complaints. Overall, 66% of patients subsequently had at least 10 symptoms, 50% had at least 14 symptoms, and 30% reported at least 26 symptoms. Symptoms were largely cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurological. Paediatric patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome seen in a large speciality clinic are predominantly female, are mostly Caucasian, have onset of symptoms in early adolescence, and have symptoms for over two years before diagnosis. Over half of patients have joint hypermobility. More than one-third of patients have a possible autoimmune or inflammatory trigger, including infection, concussion, or surgery/trauma. Patients experience symptoms that are highly variable and multi-system in origin over the course of illness.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.