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In this research we can demonstrate, that fission technetium-99 can be successfully immobilized as tetravalent cation in solid state refractory oxides such as pyrochlores and perovskites. Pyrochlores show excellent performance in ASTM C1220-10 type corrosion testing and have the ability to structurally bond Tc-99 and therefore avoid the formation of highly-mobile, pertechnetate species under conditions of a generic repository. We have fabricated lanthanide technetium oxides using either dry-chemical ceramic processing, or wet-chemical coprecipitation methods. Tc pyrochlores have shown better Tc retention and corrosion resistance compared with Tc-containing LAWE4-type borosilicate glass, combined with 50-times higher waste loading. However, mechanical properties (fracture toughness, compressive strength) of the pyrochlores are lacking and the microstructure shows high open porosity of about 50 %. To improve these properties we tested a variety of measures such as hot-pressing or the combination of hot pressing and high-temperature synthesis, but the improvement was minor and Tc and the surrogate Ru were partly reduced. The presence of metallic inclusions has strong impact on Tc retention and release rates increased more than tenfold. We have further developed a wet-chemical coprecipitation synthesis route followed by calcination and a 4-days high-temperature sintering cycle for the model composition Sm2(Ru0.5Ti0.5)2O7 where titanium oxide was added as sintering agent. The ceramic surrogate waste forms showed improved theoretical densities of about 73 % combined with sufficient mechanical strength, while maintaining ruthenium in the tetravalent state.
Help-seeking is important to access appropriate care and improve mental health. However, individuals often delay or avoid seeking help for mental health problems. Interventions to improve help-seeking have been developed, but their effectiveness is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were therefore conducted to examine the effectiveness of mental health related help-seeking interventions. Nine databases in English, German and Chinese were searched for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Effect sizes were calculated for attitudes, intentions and behaviours to seek formal, informal and self-help. Ninety-eight studies with 69 208 participants were included. Interventions yielded significant short-term benefits in terms of formal help-seeking, self-help, as well as mental health literacy and personal stigma. There were also positive long-term effects on formal help-seeking behaviours. The most common intervention types were strategies to increase mental health literacy, destigmatisation (both had positive short-term effects on formal help-seeking behaviours) as well as motivational enhancement (with positive long-term effects on formal help-seeking behaviours). Interventions improved formal help-seeking behaviours if delivered to people with or at risk of mental health problems, but not among children, adolescents or the general public. There was no evidence that interventions increased the use of informal help. Few studies were conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of help-seeking interventions in terms of improving attitudes, intentions and behaviours to seek formal help for mental health problems among adults. Future research should develop effective interventions to improve informal help-seeking, for specific target groups and in LMICs settings.
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between baseline factors and severe RVGE. Cumulative incidence at 6 months of age was 23/1000 (95% CI 15–30) in cohort 1 and 6/1000 (95% CI 3–8) in cohort 2. Early antibiotic use (compared with no use) was associated with 2.03 (95% CI 1.18–3.48) and 1.41 (95% CI 0.80–2.51) times the rate of severe RVGE in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The cumulative incidence of severe RVGE was low at 6 months of age, suggesting that a 4-week delay in the vaccination schedule may not result in a large number of severe RVGE episodes prior to vaccine receipt.
The large-scale thickness distribution of sea ice was measured during several campaigns in the European Arctic north of Svalbard from 2007 using an airborne electromagnetic induction device. In August 2010 and April-May 2011, this was complemented by extensive on-ice work including measurements of snow thickness and freeboard. Ice thicknesses show a clear difference between the seasons, with thicker ice during spring than in summer. In spring 2011, negative freeboard and flooding were observed as a result of the extensive snow cover. We find that the characteristics of the first-year sea ice allow combining observations from different years. The ice thickness in the marginal ice zone increases with increasing latitude and increasing distance to the ice edge; however, in the inner ice pack from ∼100 km from the ice edge the thickness remains almost constant. Modal ice thickness in spring reaches 2.4 m whereas in summer it is 1.0–1.4 m. Our study provides new insight into ice thickness distributions of a typical ice cover consisting of mainly first- and second-year ice, which may become the dominant ice type in the Arctic in the future.
Mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia and the major affective disorders, are in general strongly associated with social dysfunction. For a long time social dysfunction was considered an epiphenomenon of the disease process. Diagnostic criteria of mental disorders were and still are often derived from the domains of work and social relationships. There are, though, at least two related reasons why social functioning deserves a closer look:
1 There is an increasing trend to treat patients in the community instead of in hospital: this emphasis on community care requires careful evaluation with respect to its consequences. To what extent is survival in the community possible and what is the quality of life like there? Are community programmes better than hospital treatment, and for whom? Therefore, an emphasis on social dysfunction is justified in evaluating the outcome, costs and benefits of community care.
2 There is growing evidence that the time course of symptoms and social dysfunction may vary relatively independently. The social disablement of a patient may be characterised much more by social disabilities than by persistent psychiatric symptoms; the former may call for types of (non-clinical) care that are not readily available. For example, psychosocial rehabilitation focuses on those cognitive and social abilities of the patient which are crucial for a more or less independent life. Therefore, separate measurement is justified for the sake of the right choice of treatment.
Classification of social dysfunction
The standard diagnostic systems, primarily the ICD of the World Health Organization and the DSM of the American Psychiatric Association, offer no adequate solution to the problem of the classification and assessment of the social dysfunction that results from mental disorder. We have to look for other classification systems, such as the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organization, 2001), known as ICF, the overall aim of which is to provide a unified and standard language and framework for the description of health and health-related states.
The ICF is the successor of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) of the World Health Organization (1980), which offered a conceptual model to study the long-term consequences of disease or disorder in terms of impairments, functional disabilities and social handicaps, and the effectiveness of healthcare in handling these kinds of problem.
Clinical practice guidelines are not easily implemented, leading to a gap between research synthesis and their use in routine care.
To summarise the evidence relating to the impact of guideline implementation on provider performance and patient outcomes in mental healthcare settings, and to explore the performance of different strategies for guideline implementation.
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and before-and-after studies comparing guideline implementation strategies v. usual care, and different guideline implementation strategies, in patients with severe mental illness.
In total, 19 studies met our inclusion criteria. The studies did not show a consistent positive effect of guideline implementation on provider performance, but a more consistent small to modest positive effect on patient outcomes.
Guideline implementation does not seem to have an impact on provider performance, nonetheless it may influence patient outcomes positively.
The widely quarried and commercially exploited Gonioclymenia Limestone of the western and southern Tafilalt Platform (Anti-Atlas, SE Morocco) represents a transgressive but strongly condensed and shallowing upwards unit that overlies conformably or unconformably Famennian to Lower Devonian deposits. It is characterized by abundant, giant-sized Gonioclymenia speciosa, which characterizes the Famennian V-B, and rare Leviclymenia ramula sp. nov. Associated conodont faunas fall in the Bispathodus costatus Subzone of the B. aculeatus aculeatus (= Middle expansa) Zone. A rare outcrop at Jebel Ihrs West proved that Kalloclymenia and conodont faunas of the B. ultimus ultimus (= Upper expansa) Zone occur in a separate, overlying unit of the lower part of Famennian VI. Consequently, joint occurrences of Gonioclymenia and Kalloclymenia on large limestone slabs that are on offer in rock shops are artificial assemblages; there is no evidence for a regional co-occurrence of both genera. This is supported by correlation into thicker sections of the adjacent Maider and Tafilalt Basins. The Tafilalt Gonioclymenia Transgression may represent the regional expression of a eustatic pulse in the B. costatus Subzone that is known on the Ardennes Shelf as the transgressive Epinette Event. The conodont faunas yielded Neopolygnathus fibula sp. nov., Pseudopolygnathus primus tafilensis ssp. nov., new morphotypes of B. spinulicostatus and Pseudopolygnathus primus primus, the oldest Siphonodella (Eosiphonodella) and variable ‘siphonodelloids’ that are currently left in open nomenclature.
Britt, Shen, Sinclair, Grossman, and Klieger (2016) discuss employee resilience trajectories, noting that only a few studies taking this approach have been conducted in the workplace. They recommend that with such an approach it is essential to assess baseline functioning, document adversity, and gather longitudinal data. They also point out the need to clarify what variables should be measured in the demonstration of resilience and suggest that resilience trajectories across different outcomes may or may not converge. We agree that trajectories are a promising approach to studying employee resilience. However, conceptualizing trajectories as profiles provides additional meaningful concepts for describing the demonstration of resilience. These concepts have the potential for moving theory and research beyond the work on trajectories described by Britt et al.
Using Hα Fabry-Pérot images of the central 7 arcmin of M31 we demonstrate the amount of filamentary gaseous emission of the ISM in the bulge of this galaxy, which, along with the high surface brightness in the continuum, is known to cause serious problems for the spectrophotometry of PNe in this region. From pioneering work in the Magellanic Clouds and M31 the observational difficulties have been known for some time. We present first observations of PNe in the bulge of M31 obtained with Integral Field Spectroscopy (3D), a method which is shown to be capable of providing superior background subtraction accuracy, compared to conventional slit spectroscopy. Data were secured with MPFS at the Selentchuk 6m telescope, and during a commission run of PMAS at Calar Alto. It is shown how the spatial information obtained from the 3D technique is used to correct for systematic errors in the measurement of emission line intensities which have been reported in the literature.
Fossils of megaherbivores from eight late Pleistocene 14C- and OSL-dated doline infillings of Ajoie (NW Switzerland) were discovered along the Transjurane highway in the Swiss Jura. Carbon and oxygen analyses of enamel were performed on forty-six teeth of large mammals (Equus germanicus, Mammuthus primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, and Bison priscus), coming from one doline in Boncourt (~ 80 ka, marine oxygen isotope stage MIS5a) and seven in Courtedoux (51–27 ka, late MIS3), in order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions of the region. Similar enamel δ13C values for both periods, ranging from − 14.5 to − 9.2‰, indicate that the megaherbivores lived in a C3 plant-dominated environment. Enamel δ18OPO4 values range from 10.9 to 16.3‰ with a mean of 13.5 ± 1.0‰ (n = 46). Mean air temperatures (MATs) were inferred using species-specific δ18OPO4–δ18OH2O-calibrations for modern mammals and a present-day precipitation δ18OH2O-MAT relation for Switzerland. Similar average MATs of 6.6 ± 3.6°C for the deposits dated to ~ 80 ka and 6.5 ± 3.3°C for those dated to the interval 51–27 ka were estimated. This suggests that these mammals in the Ajoie area lived in mild periods of the late Pleistocene with MATs only about 2.5°C lower than modern-day temperatures.
Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant drug with narrative, non-systematic reviews making claims of efficacy.
The present study systematically reviewed published and unpublished evidence of the acute and long-term efficacy and acceptability of agomelatine compared with placebo in the treatment of major depression.
Randomised controlled trials comparing agomelatine with placebo in the treatment of unipolar major depression were systematically reviewed. Primary outcomes were (a) Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) score at the end of treatment (short-term studies) and (b) number of relapses (long-term studies).
Meta-analyses included 10 acute-phase and 3 relapse prevention studies. Seven of the included studies were unpublished. Acute treatment with agomelatine was associated with a statistically significant superiority over placebo of −1.51 HRSD points (99% Cl −2.29 to −0.73, nine studies). Data extracted from three relapse prevention studies failed to show significant effects of agomelatine over placebo (relative risk 0.78, 99% Cl 0.41−1.48). Secondary efficacy analyses showed a significant advantage of agomelatine over placebo in terms of response (with no effect for remission). None of the negative trials were published and conflicting results between published and unpublished studies were observed.
We found evidence suggesting that a clinically important difference between agomelatine and placebo in patients with unipolar major depression is unlikely. There was evidence of substantial publication bias.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Time-resolved imagery is presented showing the changes that occur in the focal volume of dilute liquid/particle suspensions following the arrival of single, Q-switched, frequency-doubled, Nd:YAG laser pulses. Limiting data and corresponding imagery at 21, 84, 244, 790, and 2900 nanoseconds following the laser pulse are presented for a carbon particle suspension consisting of used (carbonized) 1OW-15 motor oil and for a suspension of the inorganic metallic cluster molecule Mo2Ag4S8 [PPh3]4. The images in conjunction with the accompanying limiting data show that the reduction in transmission, observed as the input pulse energy is increased, results from scattering from bubbles augmented by plasma absorption. Keywords: laser induced breakdown, plasma, suspension, bubble, nonlinear materials, shadowgraph, imagery
An iterative technique to develop plasma processing, consisting of identifying materials with unique properties, calculating conversion efficiencies, product purity and power from thermodynamic data for the chemical reactions selected to produce it and modeling the process mathematically and physically to determine capital and labor costs is illustrated with production of silicon carbide and titanium diboride in Alcoa's DC plasma facility. The work shows that submicron silicon carbide and titanium diboride containing less than 0.2% oxygen can be produced with plasmas at costs competitive with traditional processes. It has also been reported that aluminum nitride, a material which has the high thermal conductivity needed for high power electronic substrates, can be satisfactorily produced by reacting aluminum powder with nitrogen in an RF plasma system. Future application of plasmas for production of ceramics will depend on discovery of unique properties and cost effective process optimization.
The field of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has matured considerably within recent years and first products are commercially available. After a brief review of the improvement of individual OLEDs we will focus on research topics for the preparation of passive matrix (PMOLED), active matrix (AMOLED) and full color displays. To date, the properties of organic matrix displays basically meet consumer product requirements. Anyhow an industrial cheap fabrication technology for reliable displays is not established yet. To meet the industrial demands for device fabrication a new horizontal in-line vacuum system for a massproduction compatible device manufacturing was installed. For material saving large area coatings the system accommodates up to 7” × 13” substrates. Different PMOLED-Displays based on vacuum deposited organic compounds have been prepared by various fabrication techniques. We demonstrate a 2 inch organic display with 24 × 32 single pixels and 0.9 × 0.9 mm2 pitch whereby cathode texture was achieved using photoresist barriers featuring a distinct undercut. Due to the inherent limitations of multiplexing and in order to satisfy the need for large area, high resolution displays the basic concepts for an active matrix addressing scheme are dealt with. In this regard transparent and electrically inverted top-side emitting diodes (IOLEDs) will be demonstrated. The latter are advantageous for the incorporation of powerful nchannel thin film transistors in the AMOLED driver backplanes. An all-organic smart pixel device comprising a single Pentacene based organic field effect transistor (OFET) and a conventional OLED was successfully prepared. Furthermore a new flash-sublimation technique for the spatially selective deposition of small organic molecules will be presented. We prepared OLEDs comprising flash-deposited Tris-(-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) and Alq3 doped with DCM2 which demonstrate the suitability of this technique for preparation of fullcolor displays based on small organic molecules.
We report on nano-scale optical effects of amorphous silicon layer conformally deposited on randomly textured zinc oxide layers on glass substrates investigated by near-field scanning microscopy. Such textured layers are used in thin-film photovoltaic devices to enhance light trapping. Experimental results are compared to theoretical data, obtained from large scale finite-difference time-domain simulations. Light localization on the surface of the textured interface and a focusing of light by the structure further away are observed. The measurements are compared with simulations, which provide additional insight into the light intensity distribution inside the solar cell on a nm-scale. It will be shown how this information can be used to optimize light trapping in thin-film solar cells using an amorphous silicon solar cell as an example.