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Objectives: To describe multivariate base rates (MBRs) of low scores and reliable change (decline) scores on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in college athletes at baseline, as well as to assess MBR differences among demographic and medical history subpopulations. Methods: Data were reported on 15,909 participants (46.5% female) from the NCAA/DoD CARE Consortium. MBRs of ImPACT composite scores were derived using published CARE normative data and reliability metrics. MBRs of sex-corrected low scores were reported at <25th percentile (Low Average), <10th percentile (Borderline), and ≤2nd percentile (Impaired). MBRs of reliable decline scores were reported at the 75%, 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence intervals. We analyzed subgroups by sex, race, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or learning disability (ADHD/LD), anxiety/depression, and concussion history using chi-square analyses. Results: Base rates of low scores and reliable decline scores on individual composites approximated the normative distribution. Athletes obtained ≥1 low score with frequencies of 63.4% (Low Average), 32.0% (Borderline), and 9.1% (Impaired). Athletes obtained ≥1 reliable decline score with frequencies of 66.8%, 32.2%, 18%, and 3.8%, respectively. Comparatively few athletes had low scores or reliable decline on ≥2 composite scores. Black/African American athletes and athletes with ADHD/LD had higher rates of low scores, while greater concussion history was associated with lower MBRs (p < .01). MBRs of reliable decline were not associated with demographic or medical factors. Conclusions: Clinical interpretation of low scores and reliable decline on ImPACT depends on the strictness of the low score cutoff, the reliable change criterion, and the number of scores exceeding these cutoffs. Race and ADHD influence the frequency of low scores at all cutoffs cross-sectionally.
This article describes a formal proof of the Kepler conjecture on dense sphere packings in a combination of the HOL Light and Isabelle proof assistants. This paper constitutes the official published account of the now completed Flyspeck project.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
For Western culture, and particularly for women, the Greek lyric poet Sappho, has come down as the original poet of female desire as well as the original figure of same-sex female erotics. Sappho was renowned throughout the ancient world for the unique power and expressiveness of her lyricism. The three primary modes of representing Sappho during the early modern period, incorporating the garbled tradition of "the two Sapphos", were repeatedly elaborated and sometimes conflated. Sappho was represented: as the first example of female poetic excellence; as an early exemplar of the "unnatural" or monstrous sexuality of the tribade; and as a mythologized figure who acts the suicidal abandoned woman in the Ovidian tale of Sappho and Phaon. Apart from the appeal of Sappho's poems to classicists and poets challenging themselves via translation and the use of Aeolian meter, Sappho's representation as an originary poetic figure has captured the imagination of many generations.
The directional dark-field signal obtained with X-ray grating interferometry yields direction-dependent information about the X-ray scattering taking place inside the examined sample. It allows examination of its morphology without the requirement of resolving the micrometer size structures directly causing the scattering. The local morphology in turn gives rise to macroscopic mechanical properties of the investigated specimen. In this study, we investigate the relation between the biomechanical elasticity (Young’s modulus) and the measured directional dark-field parameters of a well-defined sample made of wood. In our proof-of-principle experiment, we found a correlation between Young’s modulus, the average dark-field signal, and the average dark-field anisotropy. Hence, we are able to show that directional dark-field imaging is a new method to predict mechanical sample properties. As grating interferometry provides absorption, phase-contrast, and dark-field data at the same time, this technique appears promising to combine imaging and mechanical testing in a single testing stage. Therefore, we believe that directional dark-field imaging will have a large impact in the materials science world.
We present an improved algorithm for the computation of Zariski chambers on algebraic surfaces. The new algorithm significantly outperforms the currently available method and therefore allows us to treat surfaces of high Picard number, where huge numbers of chambers occur. As an application, we efficiently compute the number of chambers supported by the lines on the Segre–Schur quartic.
Titanium-based ceramic supports designed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells were synthesized, and catalytic activity was explored using electrochemical analysis. Synthesis of high surface area TiO2 and TiO supports was accomplished by rapidly heating a gel of polyethyleneimine-bound titanium in a tube furnace under a forming gas atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed anatase phase formation for the TiO2 materials and crystallite sizes of less than 10 nm in both cases. Subsequent disposition of platinum through an incipient wetness approach leads to highly dispersed crystallites of platinum, less than 6 nm each, on the conductive supports. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive x-ray analysis results showed a highly uniform Ti and Pt distribution on the surface of both materials. The supports without platinum are highly stable to acidic aqueous conditions and show no signs of oxygen reduction reactivity (ORR). However, once the 20 wt% platinum is added to the material, ORR activity comparable to XC-72-based materials is observed.
This article reports on the role of annealing on the development of microstructure and its concomitant effects on the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline AgPbmSbTe2+m (m = 18, lead–antimony–silver–tellurium, LAST-18) compounds. The annealing temperature was varied by applying a gradient annealing method, where a 40-mm-long sample rod was heat treated in an axial temperature gradient spanning between 200 and 600 °C for 7 days. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed Ag2Te nanoparticles at a size of 20–250 nm in the matrix. A remarkable reduction in the thermal conductivity to as low as 0.8 W/mK was also recorded. The low thermal conductivity coupled with a large Seebeck coefficient of ∼320 μV/K led to high ZT of about 1.05 at 425 °C for the sample annealed at 505 °C. These results also demonstrate that samples annealed above 450 °C for long term are more thermally stable than those treated at lower temperatures.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate digestive physiological outcomes elicited by functional fibres fed to healthy adult men. A total of twenty-one healthy adult men were utilised in a cross-over design. Each subject received polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) (21 g/d) or no supplemental fibre (no fibre control; NFC) in a snack bar. Periods were 21 d and faeces were collected during the last 5 d of each period. Food intake, including fibre intake, did not differ among treatments. Flatulence (P = 0·001) and distention (P = 0·07) were greatest when subjects consumed PDX or SCF. Reflux was greater (P = 0·04) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. All tolerance scores were low ( < 2·5), indicating only slight discomfort. Faecal ammonia, 4-methylphenol, indole and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0·01) when subjects consumed the functional fibre sources compared with NFC. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were lower (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed PDX compared with SCF and NFC. Faecal pH was lower (P = 0·01) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC, while PDX was intermediate. Faecal wet weight was greatest (P = 0·03) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. Faecal dry weight tended to be greater (P = 0·07) when subjects consumed PDX compared with NFC. The functional fibres led to 1·4 and 0·9 g (PDX and SCF, respectively) increases in faecal dry mass per g supplemental fibre intake. Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. These functional fibres appear to be beneficial to gut health while leading to minimal gastrointestinal upset.
MnO nanoparticles (NPs) were surface functionalized by two different approaches, (1) using a dopamine-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (DA-PEG) ligand and (2) by encapsulation within a thin silica shell applying a novel approach. Both MnO@DA-PEG and MnO@SiO2 NPs exhibited excellent long-term stability in physiological solutions. In addition, the cytotoxic potential of both materials was comparatively low. Furthermore, owing to the magnetic properties of MnO NPs, both MnO@DA-PEG and MnO@SiO2 lead to a shortening of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in MRI. In comparison to the PEGylated MnO NPs, the presence of a thin silica shell led to a greater stability of the MnO core itself by preventing excessive Mn ion leaching into aqueous solution.
The ζ-phase, existing between 35 and 70% U in Pu, belongs to the high density phases seen from the point of view of systematics of allotropic modifications of Pu metal. Despite the volume per actinide atom only slightly higher than for α-Pu, it magnetic susceptibility is much higher than for α-Pu and exceeds even the δ-Pu value. Similarly, the Sommerfeld coefficient γ > 40 mJ/mol Pu K2 exceeds the experimental δ-Pu value. The data confirm that the volume is not the primary control parameter affecting the situation around the Fermi level of common Pu phases and they point against the traditional belief that they are essentially narrow 5f band systems.
Results are presented employing cross-sectional analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to examine intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless alloys in high-temperature water environments. Microstructural, chemical and crystallographic characterization of buried interfaces at near-atomic resolutions is used to investigate corrosion/oxidation reactions, composition changes and deformation events at crack tips. Information obtained by a wide variety of high-resolution imaging and analysis methods indicates the processes occurring during crack advance and provides insights into the mechanisms controlling SCC. Examples of crack tips produced in oxidizing and hydrogenated water are presented for both Fe-base stainless steels (SSs) and Ni-base stainless alloys. Cracks in SSs show similar characteristics in both environments, with oriented oxide films at crack walls and cracks ending in few-nm-wide tips. Many of these same features are seen for alloy 182 in oxidizing water suggesting a common mechanism, generally consistent with a slip oxidation process. A distinct difference is seen at alloy 600 and alloy 182 tips produced in hydrogenated water. Penetrative attack along grain boundaries without evidence for significant plastic deformation is believed to indicate a major role of active-path corrosion/oxidation in the SCC process.
Electronics in “wearable systems” or “smart textiles” are nowadays mainly realized on traditional interconnection substrates, like rigid Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) or mechanically flexible substrates. The electronic modules are detachable to allow cleaning and washing of the textile. In order to achieve a higher degree of integration and user comfort, IMEC-UGent/CMST developed a technology for flexible and stretchable electronic circuits. The electronic system is completely embedded in an elastomer material like PDMS (silicone), resulting in soft and stretchable electronic modules. The technology uses standard packaged components (IC's) and meander shaped copper tracks, so that stretchable systems with complex functionality can be achieved. Testing methods for washability were selected and developed. First tests are showing promising results, leveling the path to washable electronics in textiles. In order to show the possibilities of the technology in the field of textile applications a 7x8 single color stretchable LED-matrix was designed and integrated in textile. This LED-matrix can be applied for example in wearable signage applications.
A novel technology for stretchable electronics is presented which can be used for the realization of wearable textile electronics and biomedical implants. It consists of rigid or flexible component islands interconnected with stretchable meander-shaped copper conductors embedded in a stretchable polymer, e.g. PDMS. The technology uses standard PCB manufacturing steps and liquid injection molding techniques to achieve a robust and reliable product. Due to the stretchable feature of the device, conductors and component islands should be able to withstand a certain degree of stress to guarantee the functionality of the system. Although the copper conductors are meander-shaped in order to minimize the local plastic strain, the lifetime of the system is still limited by the occurrence of crack propagation through the copper, compromising the connectivity between the functional islands. In order to improve the lifetime of the conductors, the most important feature of the presented technology is the use of spin-on polyimide as a mechanical support for the stretchable interconnections and the functional flexible islands. In this way, every stretchable copper connection is supported by a 20μm layer of polyimide being shaped in the same manner as the above laying conductor. The grouped SMD components and straight copper tracks on the functional islands are also supported by a complete 20 μm polyimide layer. By use of the polyimide, the reliability of the stretchable interconnections, the straight interconnections on the flexible islands and the transitions between the stretchable and non-stretchable parts is improved. This approach results in a significant increase of the lifetime of the stretchable interconnections as it is doubled. In this contribution, the different process steps and materials of the technology will be highlighted. Initial reliability results will be discussed and the realization of some functional demonstrators containing a whole range of different components will further illustrate the feasibility of this technology. The advantages and disadvantages in terms of processability, cost and mechanical strength of the photo-definable polyimide will be covered.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in light water reactor components has long been studied from a post mortem perspective, yielding insights into water chemistries and effects on crack propagation. Analysis of a cracked component does not effectively provide information on the corrosion events or on SCC initiation. It is important that microstructures of these early stages be understood because the original surface of the component formed during fabrication is often not the final surface condition that is exposed to reactor water. Pre-service grinding of reactor components and welds is performed for a variety of reasons, from aesthetics to preparation for non-destructive testing. It is this final surface microstructure that often controls SCC initiation. Surface and near-surface characteristics have been investigated in 304SS metal coupons on which controlled grinding was performed. These examinations indicate the extent of subsurface microstructural damage before high-temperature water exposure. Analytical electron microscopy techniques have been used to gain insights into possible surface precursors to corrosion damage and SCC initiation. Nanocrystalline grains were commonly found at the surface in lightly ground to heavily abraded materials within the first ˜0.5-10 ųm along with high dislocation densities, twinning and lath structures.