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Because of the live viral backbone of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), questions have arisen regarding infection control precautions and restrictions surrounding its use in healthcare personnel (HCP). This document provides guidance from the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America regarding use of LAIV in HCP and the infection control precautions that are recommended with its use in this population.
This document serves as an update and companion piece to the 2005 Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Position Paper entitled “Influenza Vaccination of Healthcare Workers and Vaccine Allocation for Healthcare Workers During Vaccine Shortages.” In large part, the discussion about the rationale for influenza vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP), the strategies designed to improve influenza vaccination rates in this population, and the recommendations made in the 2005 paper still stand. This position paper notes new evidence released since publication of the 2005 paper and strengthens SHEA's position on the importance of influenza vaccination of HCP. This document does not discuss vaccine allocation during times of vaccine shortage, because the 2005 SHEA Position Paper still serves as the Society's official statement on that issue.
Objective: To examine clinical response and symptomatic remission in two studies of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methods: In a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, children 6–12 years of age with ADHD received LDX (30–70 mg/day) or placebo. In an open-label trial, children from previous studies were titrated to optimal dose over 4 weeks and maintained up to 1 year. Primary and secondary efficacy assessments were the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, respectively. Clinical response was defined as ≥30% reduction in ADHD-RS-IV total score with a CGI-I rating of 1 or 2; symptomatic remission was defined by ADHD-RS-IV total score ≤18.
Results: In the 4-week study (N=285), at any postdose assessment, 79.3% achieved response (median 13 days) and 67.1% achieved remission (median 22 days) with LDX versus 29.2% and 23.6% with placebo. In the long-term study (N=251), at any postdose assessment, 96.0% responded and 62.7% maintained response; 88.8% achieved remission and 46.4% maintained remission.
Conclusion: Most children treated with LDX achieved clinical response and symptomatic remission at one time point; once achieved, almost half maintained remission.
Templated growth for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots and lattice-mismatched structures has been employed in this study. Self assembly of block copolymers (BCP) has been exploited to create a regular array of nanoscale patterns on a substrate to generate the growth template. These patterned templates were used for the selective area growth of pseudomorphic quantum dots, allowing for precise control over the dot size and spatial distribution. Strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched structures grown past the pseudomorphic limit was also studied. Analysis of the grown structures suggests that this approach using block copolymer templating followed by selective growth can be used for defect reduction in lattice-mismatched materials.
GaAsSb (N) superattices (SLs) grown on InP substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy are investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD shows very sharp satellite peaks and pendellosung fringes, which indicates excellent crystalline quality and abrupt interfaces in the GaAsSb (N)/InP SL, with Sb varies with 0.2 to 0.7. Low temperature PL shows clearly different features between the 25% Sb and 44% Sb samples. A band alignment difference is proposed to explain these behaviors. Experimental data establishes that the transition from a type-I to a type-II heterostructure occurs for a Sb-content of approximately 40%, which agrees well with the prediction by Model Solid Theory. While N incorporation degrades the PL intensity, it also provides the greater electron confinement needed to achieve mid-IR emission from GaAsSbN/GaAsSb type-II QWs
The microstructure of epitaxial InAs thin films grown by MOCVD on mask-patterned “LEO” (lateral epitaxial overgrowth) GaAs and on unpatterned GaAs substrates was studied using double-crystal x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. This paper describes the improvement in crystal quality (factor of 20 reduction in x-ray rocking curve width), the order of magnitude reduction in dislocation density, and the rearrangement of the remaining extended defects that were observed in the LEO material when compared to the film grown on the unpatterned wafer.
Power applications of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors will require stabilization against thermal runaway. We have developed conductive buffer layers to electrically couple the HTS layer to the underlying metal substrate. The structure comprises the layer sequence of SrRuO3 (SRO) on LaNiO3 (LNO) on biaxially textured Ni substrates. We report baseline investigations of compatibility of SRO/LNO multilayer structure with processing of Yba2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) and demonstrate biaxially textured YBCO films on conductively buffered Ni tapes. These YBCO coatings exhibit self-field Jc values as high as 1.3 × 106 A/cm2 at 77 K, and the entire structure (HTS + conductive buffers + metal substrate) shows good electrical connectivity. These results demonstrate that SRO/LNO buffer layers may provide a basis for stabilized coated conductors.
To facilitate an understanding of defect production in gallium nitride during lateral epitaxial overgrowth, computer models have been developed to simulate the complete mechanical stress and strain fields. The virtual process included the deposition of a GaN seed layer on a sapphire substrate followed by a silicon dioxide stencil mask through which, and over which, the GaN product layer evolved and then cooled down to room temperature. Lattice mismatch and thermal strain were continuously assessed. Shear stresses on different crystallographic planes were analyzed to predict dislocation generation.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16µm thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3  (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the  bar axis with 1/3<110>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5º.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16[.proportional]m thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3 [11 20] (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (1 100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the [1 100] bar axis with 1/3<11 20>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5°.
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