To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Icequakes at or near the bed of a glacier have the potential to allow us to investigate the interaction of ice with the underlying till or bedrock. Understanding this interaction is important for studying basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams, a critical process in ice dynamics models used to constrain future sea-level rise projections. However, seismic observations on glaciers can be dominated by seismic energy from surface crevassing. We present a method of automatically detecting basal icequakes and discriminating them from surface crevassing, comparing this method to a commonly used spectrum-based method of detecting icequakes. We use data from Skeidararjökull, an outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, South-East Iceland, to demonstrate that our method outperforms the commonly used spectrum-based method. Our method detects a higher number of basal icequakes, has a lower rate of incorrectly identifying crevassing as basal icequakes and detects an additional, spatially independent basal icequake cluster. We also show independently that the icequakes do not originate from near the glacier surface. We conclude that the method described here is more effective than currently implemented methods for detecting and discriminating basal icequakes from surface crevassing.
Previous research suggests that CBT focusing on worry in those with persecutory delusions reduces paranoia, severity of delusions and associated distress. This preliminary case series aimed to see whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver worry-focused CBT in a group setting to those with psychosis. A secondary aim was to examine possible clinical changes. Two groups totalling 11 participants were run for seven sessions using the Worry Intervention Trial manual. Qualitative and quantitative data about the experience of being in the group was also collected via questionnaires, as was data on number of sessions attended. Measures were delivered pre- and post-group and at 3-month follow-up. These included a worry scale, a measure of delusional belief and associated distress and quality of life measures. Of the 11 participants who started the group, nine completed the group. Qualitative and quantitative feedback indicated that most of the participants found it acceptable and helpful, and that discussing these issues in a group setting was not only tolerable but often beneficial. Reliable Change Index indicated that 6/7 of the group members showed reliable reductions in their levels of worry post-group and 5/7 at follow-up. There were positive changes on other measures, which appeared to be more pronounced at follow-up. Delivering a worry intervention in a group format appears to be acceptable and feasible. Further research with a larger sample and control group is indicated to test the clinical effectiveness of this intervention.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand the role of worry in psychosis.
(2)To learn about the possible feasibility of working on worry in a group setting.
(3)To be aware of potential clinical changes from the group.
(4)To consider acceptability for participants of working on worries in a group setting.
The wavelength of the characteristic X-radiation for the lighter elements is not constant but is a function of valence state and to a much lesser extent is a function of co-ordination number.
Commercially available X-ray fluorescence equipment is used in detecting shifts in the characteristic radiation for aluminum, sulfur, chlorine, titanium, vanadium and iron. The greatest shift is found in the case of chlorine where, using the NaCl analyzer, a shift of nearly 0.2° 2 θ is obtained in going from the Cl− in cholorides to the Cl+7 in the perchloratc. The wavelength of the Al+3Kα varies slightly as a function of co-ordination number.
Examples are given for using these phenomena in studying minerals and other compounds. The feasibility of extending the study to both heavier and lighter elements is explored.
New Instruments for X-ray or neutron diffraction or for analyses by X-ray spectrographic methods are described. They incorporate a variety of new features which open a broad new scope of experimental techniques to the investigator. The diffractometer can be used with the diffraction plane either horizontal or vertical. The X-ray tube is conveniently supported by the diffractometer, allowing one to adjust the take-off angle from 0 to 10° without disturbing the precise alignment of the instrument. The 2θ angle bisecting mechanism functions throughout a 360° range and allows independent rotation (ω) of the specimen about the common axis. It is designed specifically for fully automatic remotely programed operation in addition to the usual manual modes.
The constant-potential generator is rated up to 50 ma at 50 kvcp and up to 40 ma at 60 kvcp, A monitor-type switch selects combinations of kilovolts and milliamperes in a manner such that exact reproducibility of settings is assured.
The dual-function strip-chart recorder incorporates both linear and three-cycle logarithmic slide wires so that each uses the output from the same linear rate meter.
The Integrated Radiation Analyzer consists of a pulse-height analyzer, electronic timer, high-speed sealer, precision linear ratemeter, power supply, printer, and diffractometer control. Integration of these components has made possible unique programing for X-ray analysis.
The obvious influence of Plato on Utopia and the antagonism of some humanists toward the medieval scholastics and their belief in the primacy of Aristotle seem to have resulted in the impression that Thomas More agreed with this anti-Aristotelianism and that Aristotle had little influence on Utopia. As a result, this matter has never been considered in depth, and important points about both Thomas More and Utopia have been overlooked. That More was an eclectic thinker who was a serious student of classical philosophy and that Utopia is a fine example of this eclecticism have been ignored. And in connection with this, More's knowledge of Aristotle and this philosopher's influence on Utopia have been slighted. Historians of philosophy, for example, ordinarily limit their treatment of More to pointing out the similarities between Utopia and Plato's Republic.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
There is growing interest in linking vitamin D deficiency with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The association between vitamin D deficiency during gestation, a critical period in neurodevelopment, and ASD is not well understood.
To determine the association between gestational vitamin D status and ASD.
Based on a birth cohort (n=4334), we examined the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), assessed from both maternal mid-gestation sera and neonatal sera, and ASD (defined by clinical records; n=68 cases).
Individuals in the 25OHD-deficient group at mid-gestation had more than twofold increased risk of ASD (odds ratio (OR)=2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 5.07, P=0.03) compared with the sufficient group. The findings persisted in analyses including children of European ethnicity only.
Mid-gestational vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of ASD. Because gestational vitamin D deficiency is readily preventable with safe, inexpensive and readily available supplementation, this risk factor warrants closer scrutiny.
Computerised cognitive–behavioural therapy (cCBT) for depression has the potential to be efficient therapy but engagement is poor in primary care trials.
We tested the benefits of adding telephone support to cCBT.
We compared telephone-facilitated cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 187) to minimally supported cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 182) in a pragmatic randomised trial (trial registration: ISRCTN55310481). Outcomes were depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD)-7) and somatoform complaints (PHQ-15) at 4 and 12 months.
Use of cCBT increased by a factor of between 1.5 and 2 with telephone facilitation. At 4 months PHQ-9 scores were 1.9 points lower (95% CI 0.5–3.3) for telephone-supported cCBT. At 12 months, the results were no longer statistically significant (0.9 PHQ-9 points, 95% CI −0.5 to 2.3). There was improvement in anxiety scores and for somatic complaints.
Telephone facilitation of cCBT improves engagement and expedites depression improvement. The effect was small to moderate and comparable with other low-intensity psychological interventions.
The Solar/Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) is one of the two ultraviolet spectrometers on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measuring the full disk solar irradiance. This spectrometer covers the spectral range of 119 to 421 nm and typically makes ten full spectral scans per day. The instrument was designed to monitor changes in the solar radiation with a relative accuracy of better than 1%. To achieve this goal the spectrometer makes repeated observations of a number of bright blue stars; stars that individually should vary by only small fractions of a percent over time periods of thousands of years. The calibration stars are observed with the same optics and detectors used for the solar observations and any drift in the instrument response is directly determined by changes in the ensemble average flux from these calibration stars. The instrument performance and calibration are described and solar data from the first year of the UARS mission are presented. These UARS data show significant solar activity during late 1991 and early 1992 and then clearly mark a decrease as we move off the maximum of solar cycle 22. We are optimistic that an extended UARS mission, perhaps as long as ten years, is now possible.