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Whitehouse adapts insights from evolutionary anthropology to interpret extreme self-sacrifice through the concept of identity fusion. The model neglects the role of normative systems in shaping behaviors, especially in relation to violent extremism. In peaceful groups, increasing fusion will actually decrease extremism. Groups collectively appraise threats and opportunities, actively debate action options, and rarely choose violence toward self or others.
Late prehistoric archaeological research in Myanmar is in a phase of rapid expansion. Recent work by the Mission Archéologique Française au Myanmar aims to establish a reliable Neolithic to Iron Age culture-historical sequence, which can then be compared to surrounding regions of Southeast Asia. Excavations at Nyaung'gan and Oakaie in central Myanmar have provided 52 new AMS dates, which allow the creation of Myanmar's first reliable prehistoric radiometric chronology. They have also identified the Neolithic to Bronze Age transition in central Myanmar, which is of critical importance in understanding long-range interactions at the national, regional and inter-regional level. This research provides the first significant step towards placing late prehistoric Myanmar in its global context.
Hexaferrum, defined as an hcp Fe mineral containing varying amounts of Ru, Os, or Ir (Mochalov et al. 1998) was re-examined in the light of new analyses of similar alloys from the Loma Peguera and Loma Larga chromitites, in the central part of Loma Caribe peridotite, Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, together with a review of the phase chemistry in the Fe–Ni–Ir and Fe–Ru–Ir systems. We conclude that the hcp (Fe,Ir) mineral corresponds to the ε-phase of Raub et al. (1964) and should be differentiated from hexaferrum [(Fe,Os) and (Fe,Ru)] because it is separated by one to two miscibility gaps and therefore is not a continuous solid solution with Fe.
Following a first field evaluation conducted in 2013, we found that hemolysis can be induced by infusion pumps during blood transfusion. Actually, limited data is available on the risk of hemolysis associated with the most used infusion pumps in Quebec hospitals: InfusomatSpace (peristaltic), Plum A+TM (piston) and ColleagueCXE (shuttle).
Staff from the blood bank and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) unit in our hospital collaborated in 2016 to assess the hemolysis and potassium level (that is, a blood test sensitive to hemolysis) induced by the use of the three infusion pumps mentioned above. Measurements were taken for each pump at five flow rates, from 30 to 450 ml/hour, and were compared with measurements taken before using the pumps. Tests were conducted with 135 red blood cell (RBC) units. RBC units were aged from 10 to 28 days.
The shuttle- and piston-type pumps resulted in low hemolysis levels. The peristaltic-type pump produced significantly more hemolysis. However, the absolute value of hemolysis remained within the range recommended by the regulatory agencies in North America and Europe. Potassium levels did not increase with the use of the pumps.
The collaboration between the blood bank and the HTA unit led to the conclusion that modern infusion pumps widely used in Quebec hospitals produce non-threatening levels of hemolysis during blood transfusion. This finding is important to ensure safe practices.
We consider the existence of normalized solutions in H1(ℝN) × H1(ℝN) for systems of nonlinear Schr¨odinger equations, which appear in models for binary mixtures of ultracold quantum gases. Making a solitary wave ansatz, one is led to coupled systems of elliptic equations of the form
and we are looking for solutions satisfying
where a1> 0 and a2> 0 are prescribed. In the system, λ1 and λ2 are unknown and will appear as Lagrange multipliers. We treat the case of homogeneous nonlinearities, i.e. , with positive constants β, μi, pi, ri. The exponents are Sobolev subcritical but may be L2-supercritical. Our main result deals with the case in which in dimensions 2 ≤ N ≤ 4. We also consider the cases in which all of these numbers are less than 2 + 4/N or all are bigger than 2 + 4/N.
Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with several psychiatric conditions characterized by deficits in executive functioning (EF). A specific OXTR variant, rs2254298, has previously been associated with brain functioning in regions implicated in EF. Moreover, birth weight variation across the entire range is associated with individual differences in cortical structure and function that underlie EF. This is the first study to examine the main and interactive effect between rs2254298 and birth weight on EF in children. The sample consisted of 310 children from an ongoing longitudinal study. EF was measured at age 4.5 using observational tasks indexing working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control. A family-based design that controlled for population admixture, stratification, and nongenomic confounds was employed. A significant genetic association between rs2254298 and EF was observed, with more copies of the major allele (G) associated with higher EF. There was also a significant interaction between rs2254298 and birth weight, such that more copies of the major allele in combination with higher birth weight predicted better EF. Findings suggest that OXTR may be associated with discrete neurocognitive abilities in childhood, and these effects may be modulated by intrauterine conditions related to fetal growth and development.
We made simultaneous high resolution observations of the solar granular field and the Sun‘s seismic events. We find that these events occur in the dark intergranular lanes. The events are preceded by the darkening of an already dark lane. On the leading edge of each event, there is a second more abrupt and precipitous darkening lasting a minute or two.
Reducing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospitals remains a challenge. Current methods are screening of patients, isolation, and adherence to hygiene measures among healthcare workers (HCWs). More specific measures could rely on a better characterization of the contacts at risk of dissemination.
To quantify how close-proximity interactions (CPIs) affected Staphylococcus aureus dissemination.
Nested case-control study.
French long-term care facility in 2009.
Patients (n=329) and HCWs (n=261).
We recorded CPIs using electronic devices together with S. aureus nasal carriage during 4 months in all participants. Cases consisted of patients showing incident S. aureus colonization and were paired to 8 control patients who did not exhibit incident colonization at the same date. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify associations between incidence and exposure to demographic, network, and carriage covariables.
The local structure of contacts informed on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage acquisition: CPIs with more HCWs were associated with incident MRSA colonization in patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.17] for 1 more HCW), as well as longer CPI durations (1.03 [1.01–1.06] for a 1-hour increase). Joint analysis of carriage and contacts showed increased carriage acquisition in case of CPI with another colonized individual (OR, 1.55 [1.14–2.11] for 1 more HCW). Global network measurements did not capture associations between contacts and carriage.
Electronically recorded CPIs inform on the risk of MRSA carriage, warranting more study of in-hospital contact networks to design targeted intervention strategies.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(8):922–929
Having devised an artificial cement in 1817, Louis-Joseph Vicat (1786–1861) sought to share and further the science surrounding calcareous cements. His son, Joseph Vicat, went on to found the eponymous company which became an international manufacturer of cement. This work was first published in French in 1828 and is reissued here in the English translation of 1837. Vicat addresses the subject of limes, the ingredients used to prepare mortars and cements, and how these building materials are affected by environmental conditions, such as immersion in water or exposure to damp soil and inclement weather. He also compares binding products of the time with those developed by the ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks. The translator, J. T. Smith, provides helpful explanatory notes and clarifies technical terms. Charles William Pasley's Observations on Limes, Calcareous Cements, Mortars, Stuccos, and Concrete (1838) is also reissued in this series.