The endemic roofed turtle Kachuga trivittata has been extirpated over most of its former range in the Ayeyarwady River system of Myanmar. Only two small remnant populations are known to survive. In a small stretch of the upper Chindwin River K. trivittata persists because local Shan villages traditionally ban the killing of large adult K. trivittata. The population has nevertheless declined dramatically during the last few years because of the erosion of the ban by migrant fishermen from central Myanmar who do not observe the local regulation, and because of the overexploitation of eggs. The traditional regulation of the Shan villages offers a basis, through its reinforcement and education of migrants, for a species recovery programme. Further actions will include the protection of nests and eggs, and eventually the banning of camps and seasonal settlements on sandbanks used by K. trivittata for nesting. K. trivittata also still persists in the Dokhtawady River in a small area subjected to low exploitation pressure in the recent past because of the dangers of a frontline between the government army and an army of insurgents. The opening of this area following a truce brought this population close to extinction and a hydroelectric dam under construction will alter the ecology of this stretch of river. We propose to assess the potential use of the future impoundment lake for the recovery of this K. trivittata population.