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Bevacizumab, a humanized recombinant anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, was approved in Canada in 2010 for the treatment of high-grade glioma. We report the effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab in the treatment of patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas at a single institution.
Twenty-seven consecutive patients with high-grade glioma (anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma) at first or subsequent relapse were treated with bevacizumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and secondary endpoints were objective response rate, six month PFS, overall survival (OS), and safety profile.
The clinical benefit rate (complete and partial responses plus stable disease) was 59%. Median PFS was 4.3 (95% CI, 3.0-10.9) months, with a six month PFS rate of 43%. Median OS after current relapse was 8.9 (95% CI, 5.8-not reached) months. Ten episodes of grade 3/4 adverse events were observed in nine patients, including fatigue (n = 3), thrombocytopenia (n = 4), and myelotoxicity, febrile neutropenia, and pulmonary embolism (each n = 1).
We consider the efficacy and safety profile of bevacizumab is comparable to other cohorts of patients treated for recurrent high-grade glioma at other international institutions.
To assess the feasibility and the toxicity of adjuvant high dose tamoxifen (TAM) and postoperative brain irradiation for patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
Material and Methods:
Twelve patients with histopathologically confirmed GBM entered the study. There were nine males and three females, with median age of 48.8 years (range 30-75 years). Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was 60-70% for four patients and 80-100% for eight patients. Based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partition analysis, there were three class III patients, six class IV, one class V, and two class VI. Eleven patients underwent partial surgical tumor resection and one patient had a near complete resection. Two weeks post surgery, the patients were started on high dose TAM (120mg/m2 P.O. BID for three months). Two weeks from date of starting TAM, external beam radiotherapy (RT) was given at a dose of 59.4 Gy/33 qd fractions/6.5 weeks. Patients were assessed weekly for toxicity during treatment. Imaging studies were done at the end of two weeks of TAM, then monthly.
Median follow-up was 40 weeks (range 22-84 weeks). In one patient, TAM was associated with significant vomiting, necessitating the TAM dose to be decreased at three weeks and then stopped at two months. One other patient had bilateral deep venous thrombosis after 51/2 weeks on TAM, although the relationship to TAM was not firmly established. There were no radiological responses after two weeks of TAM or at the end of RT. The median time to progression was 17.7 weeks (range 5.1- 43.8 weeks). Median survival time was 33.4 weeks (range 10-79.7). Actuarial survival at 48 and 74 weeks was 40% and 15%, respectively.
Our study shows that adjuvant high dose TAM is feasible and relatively well-tolerated. Furthermore, the combined use of high dose TAM and RT postoperatively was not associated with any significant increase in radiation-induced neurological toxicity. However, high dose TAM does not appear to improve treatment results.
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