An association between Ca intake and the risk of prostate cancer has been reported in some but not all epidemiological studies. Assuming that a pathophysiological relationship would underlie this association, a favoured hypothesis proposes that relatively high Ca consumption could promote prostate cancer by reducing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D; calcitriol), the hormonal form of vitamin D. The present review analyses the plausibility of this hypothesis by considering the quantitative relationships linking Ca intake to 1,25(OH)2D production and action in healthy conditions and in prostate cancer. Changes in the plasma level of 1,25(OH)2D in response to Ca intake are of very small magnitude as compared with the variations required to influence the proliferation and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. In most studies, 1,25(OH)2D plasma level was not found to be reduced in patients with prostate cancer. The possibility that the level of 1,25(OH)2D in prostate cells is decreased with a high-Ca diet has not been documented. Furthermore, a recent randomised placebo-controlled trial did not indicate that Ca supplementation increases the relative risk of prostate cancer in men. In conclusion, the existence of a pathophysiological link between relatively high Ca intake and consequent low production and circulation level of 1,25(OH)2D that might promote the development of prostate cancer in men remains so far an hypothesis, the plausibility of which is not supported by the analysis of available clinical data.