To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter describes the maternal adaptation to pregnancy and the role of the placenta in nutrient transfer to the fetus. During pregnancy, an adaptation of maternal metabolism functions to ensure normal fetal growth throughout gestation and neonatal growth during lactation. The maternal metabolic reprogramming is believed to be directed by placental hormones. Maternal nutrition around the time of conception may have important effects on gestational length, fetal growth trajectory, and postnatal growth and health. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is the primary fetal growth-stimulating factor in response to altered nutrient supply during late gestation and is under the control of fetal insulin. Insulin and leptin are maternal metabolic indicators that may be involved in fetal intrauterine growth adaptation and long-term health. Fetal blood sampling and the use of stable isotopes in human pregnancy have allowed for description of maternal and fetal nutrient concentrations.