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New ideas for diagnostics in clinical parasitology are needed to overcome some of the difficulties experienced in the widespread adoption of detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites in livestock. Here we provide an initial evaluation of the performance of a newly developed automated device (Telenostic) to identify and quantify parasitic elements in fecal samples. This study compared the Telenostic device with the McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC for counting of strongyle eggs in a fecal sample. Three bovine fecal samples were examined, in triplicate, on each of the three fecal egg-counting devices. In addition, both manual (laboratory technician) and automated analysis (image analysis algorithm) were performed on the Telenostic device to calculate fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, there were consistent egg counts reported across the three devices and calculation methods. The Telenostic device compared very favourably to the Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster. Only in sample C, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the egg counts obtained by Mini-FLOTAC and by the other methods. From this limited dataset it can be concluded that the Telenostic-automated test is comparable to currently used benchmark FEC methods, while improving the workflow, test turn-around time and not requiring trained laboratory personnel to operate or interpret the results.
A tool has been developed that can be used to characterize or validate a BEOL interconnect technology. It connects various process assumptions directly to electrical parameters including resistance. The resistance of narrow copper lines is becoming a challenging parameter, not only in terms of controlling its value but also understanding the underlying mechanisms. The resistance was measured for 45nm-node interconnects and compared to the theory of electron scattering. This work will demonstrate how valuable it is to directly link the electrical models to the physical on-wafer dimensions and in turn to the process assumptions. For example, one can generate a tolerance pareto for physical and or electrical parameters that immediately identifies those process sectors that have the largest contribution to the overall tolerance. It also can be used to easily generate resistance versus capacitance plots which provide a good BEOL performance gauge. Several examples for 45nm BEOL will be given to demonstrate the value of these tools.
Post-operative nasal medications are commonly used following routine septal or turbinate surgery but their efficacy in removing blood clots, improving the sensation of a patent airway and promoting healing are unknown. This prospective randomized trial of patients undergoing septal and/or turbinate surgery assessed the efficacy of three commonly used nasal medicines, 0.5 per cent ephedrine hydrochloride nasal drops, betamethasone sodium phosphate (Betnosol®) nose drops and alkaline nasal douches, in producing the sensation of a patent airway in the 14 days following surgery. Ninety-seven patients were randomized into the three treatment groups and a control group who received no nasal medication. Patients assessed their nasal patency by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS) and any complications of treatment were recorded. Statistical analysis of the 76 complete sets of results using the Mann-Whitney U-test showed that there was a significant difference in the distribution of all of the treatments for each of the time intervals (p<0.05). Glass rank biserial correlation coefficients were all small (rg<0.085) but the most significant differences were between ephedrine and the control group at two hours, two, seven and 10 days (0.02, 0.054, 0.057, 0.085 respectively), alkaline nasal douches being most significant at four and 14 days (0.06 and 0.0722 respectively).