Butyric acid has been shown to have suppressive effects on inflammation and diseases related to the intestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation of two glycerol esters, monobutyrin (MB) and tributyrin (TB), would reach the hindgut of rats, thus having an effect on the caecal profile of SCFA, microbiota composition and some risk markers associated with chronic inflammation. For this purpose, rats were fed high-fat diets after adding MB (1 and 5 g/kg) and TB (5 g/kg) to a diet without any supplementation (high-fat control; HFC). A low-fat (LF) diet was also included. In the liver, total cholesterol concentrations, LDL-cholesterol concentrations, LDL:HDL ratio, and succinic acid concentrations were reduced in rats given the MB and TB (5 g/kg) diets, compared with the group fed the HFC diet. These effects were more pronounced in MB than TB groups as also expressed by down-regulation of the gene Cyp8b1. The composition of the caecal microbiota in rats fed MB and TB was separated from the group fed the HFC diet, and also the LF diet, as evidenced by the absence of the phylum TM7 and reduced abundance of the genera Dorea (similar to LF-fed rats) and rc4-4. Notably, the caecal abundance of Mucispirillum was markedly increased in the MB group compared with the HFC group. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of MB and TB can be used to counteract disturbances associated with a HFC diet, by altering the gut microbiota, and decreasing liver lipids and succinic acid concentrations.