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To describe the trend of cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and undiagnosed cases over the pandemic through the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants among healthcare workers in Tokyo, we analysed data of repeated serological surveys and in-house COVID-19 registry among the staff of National Center for Global Health and Medicine. Participants were asked to donate venous blood and complete a survey questionnaire about COVID-19 diagnosis and vaccine. Positive serology was defined as being positive on Roche or Abbott assay against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, and cumulative infection was defined as either being seropositive or having a history of COVID-19. Cumulative infection has increased from 2.0% in June 2021 (pre-Delta) to 5.3% in December 2021 (post-Delta). After the emergence of the Omicron, it has increased substantially during 2022 (16.9% in June and 39.0% in December). As of December 2022, 30% of those who were infected in the past were not aware of their infection. Results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection has rapidly expanded during the Omicron-variant epidemic among healthcare workers in Tokyo and that a sizable number of infections were undiagnosed.
To examine the association between red/processed meat consumption and glycaemic conditions (i.e. prediabetes (preDM) and diabetes mellitus (DM)) among middle-aged residents in rural Khánh Hòa, Vietnam.
In this cross-sectional study, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the association between daily consumption of red/processed meat (0–99 g, 100–199 g or ≥ 200 g) and preDM/DM with adjustments for socio-demographic, lifestyle-related and health-related variables.
Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam
The study used data collected through a baseline survey conducted during a prospective cohort study on CVD among 3000 residents, aged 40–60 years, living in rural communes in Khánh Hòa Province.
The multinomial regression model revealed that the relative-risk ratios for DM were 1·00 (reference), 1·11 (95 % CI = 0·75, 1·62) and 1·80 (95 % CI = 1·40, 2·32) from the lowest to the highest red/processed meat consumption categories (Ptrend = 0·006). The corresponding values for preDM were 1·00 (reference), 1·25 (95 % CI = 1·01, 1·54) and 1·67 (95 % CI = 1·20, 2·33) (Ptrend = 0·004). We did not find any evidence of statistical significance in relation to poultry consumption.
Increased red/processed meat consumption, but not poultry consumption, was positively associated with the prevalence of preDM/DM in rural communes in Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam. Dietary recommendations involving a reduction in red/processed meat consumption should be considered in low- and middle-income countries.
High intake of sweet foods such as cakes, cookies, chocolate and ice cream has been reported to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, prospective studies are scarce and no study has been conducted in Asian populations. We prospectively investigated the association between confectionery intake and depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population. Participants were 911 workers (812 men and 99 women; aged 19–68 years) without depressive symptoms at baseline who completed a 3-year follow-up survey. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the OR of depressive symptoms according to tertile of confectionery intake with adjustment for covariates. At the time of the 3-year follow-up survey, 153 (16·8 %) workers were newly identified as having depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16). Confectionery intake was significantly associated with increased odds of developing depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted OR of depressive symptoms for the highest v. lowest tertile of confectionery intake was 1·72 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·86) after adjustment for covariates including dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, n-3 PUFA, Mg, Zn and soft drink (Pfor trend = 0·012). Our results suggest that confectionery intake is associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population predominantly comprised of men.
To investigate the association between suicide death and serum cholesterol levels as measured at times close to suicide death.
We conducted a nested case-control study of 41 cases of suicide deaths and 205 matched controls with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels till 3 years before suicide death in a large cohort of Japanese workers.
Individuals in the lowest versus highest tertile/predefined category of TC in a Japanese working population had a three- to four-fold greater risk of suicide death. Each 10 mg/dl decrement of average TC was associated with an 18% increased chance of suicide death (95% confidence interval, 2–35%). Similar results were found for TC levels at each year.
These results suggest that a low serum TC level in recent past is associated with an increased risk of suicide death.
The Great East Japan Earthquake triggered a massive tsunami that devastated the coasts of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. Despite the large number of “resident survivors,” who have continued to reside on the upper floors of damaged houses, few studies have examined the mental health of these residents. We explored the prevalence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress reaction (PTSR) among resident survivors.
A cross-sectional household screening for health support needs was conducted among resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi, 2 to 4 months after the tsunami. Questions assessing PTSR were included in the screening interviews.
Of 5103 resident survivors, 5.7% experienced PTSR. PTSR risk factors, identified via regression analysis, differed according to the height of house flooding. When house flooding remained below the ground floor, PTSR was significantly associated with being female and regular psychotropic medication intake. These 2 factors in addition to being middle-aged or elderly and living alone were also risk factors when flood levels were above the ground floor.
Following the tsunami, PTSR was found in a considerable number of resident survivors. Attention and support for people who use psychiatric medication, their families, and people living alone are suggested as possible directions for public health strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 8)
Limited and inconsistent associations between cholesterol and egg consumption and type 2 diabetes risk have been observed in Western countries. In the present study, the association of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with type 2 diabetes risk was examined prospectively. The study subjects comprised 27 248 men and 36 218 women aged 45–75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no histories of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Dietary cholesterol and egg intakes were estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years were estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 1165 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Although dietary cholesterol intake was not associated with type 2 diabetes risk in men, it was found to be associated with a 23 % lower odds of type 2 diabetes risk in women in the highest quartile of intake, albeit not statistically significant, compared with those in the lowest quartile (Ptrend= 0·08). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among postmenopausal women; the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest quartile of cholesterol intake compared with the lowest quartile was 0·68 (95 % CI 0·49, 0·94; Ptrend= 0·04). No association between egg intake and type 2 diabetes risk was found in either men or women. In conclusion, higher intake of cholesterol or eggs may not be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese populations. The observed association between decreased type 2 diabetes risk and higher dietary cholesterol intake in postmenopausal women warrants further investigation.
Although dietary patterns have been linked to depression, a frequently observed precondition for suicide, no study has yet examined the association between dietary patterns and suicide risk.
To prospectively investigate the association between dietary patterns and death from suicide.
Participants were 40 752 men and 48 285 women who took part in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995–1998). Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of suicide from the fourth year of follow-up to December 2005 were calculated.
Among both men and women, a ‘prudent’ dietary pattern characterised by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, potatoes, soy products, mushrooms, seaweed and fish was associated with a decreased risk of suicide. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of suicide for the highest v. lowest quartiles of the dietary pattern score was 0.46 (95% CI 0.28–0.75) (P for trend, 0.005). Other dietary patterns (Westernised and traditional Japanese) were not associated with suicide risk.
Our findings suggest that a prudent dietary pattern may be associated with a decreased risk of death from suicide.
The relationship between different types of meat intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between total meat, total red meat, unprocessed red meat, processed meat and poultry intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 27 425 men and 36 424 women aged 45–75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, and had no history of type 2 diabetes, cancer, stroke, IHD, chronic liver disease or kidney disease. Meat intake was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years were estimated using a multiple logistic regression. A total of 1178 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intakes of total meat and total red meat were associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men but not in women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of total meat and total red meat intake were 1·36 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·73; P for trend = 0·006) and 1·48 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·90; P for trend = 0·003) for men, respectively, and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·62, 1·09; P for trend = 0·14) and 0·77 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·02; P for trend = 0·08) for women, respectively. Intakes of processed red meat and poultry were not associated with the increased risk of diabetes in either men or women. In conclusion, elevated intake of red meat is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men but not in women.
To examine the association between the consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine and depressive symptoms.
Cross-sectional study. Consumption of green tea and coffee was ascertained with a validated dietary questionnaire and the amount of caffeine intake was estimated from these beverages. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to compute odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for depressive symptoms with adjustments for potential confounders.
Two workplaces in north-eastern Kyushu, Japan, in 2009.
A total of 537 men and women aged 20–68 years.
Higher green tea consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 cup/d, those consuming ≥4 cups green tea/d had a 51 % significantly lower prevalence odds of having depressive symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders, with significant trend association (P for trend = 0·01). Further adjustment for serum folate slightly attenuated the association. Coffee consumption was also inversely associated with depressive symptoms (≥2 cups/d v. <1 cup/d: OR = 0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·98). Multiple-adjusted odds for depressive symptoms comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption was OR = 0·57 (95 % CI 0·30, 1·05; P for trend = 0·02).
Results suggest that higher consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine may confer protection against depression.
Vegetable and fruit intake has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and CVD, but its relationship to the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between vegetable and fruit intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 21 269 men and 27 168 women aged 45–75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no history of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Intake of vegetables and fruit was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years was estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 896 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intake of vegetables and fruit combined or fruit only was not associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, there was an approximately 20 %, albeit not statistically significant, risk reduction associated with vegetables (men only), green leafy vegetables (men and women) and cruciferous vegetables (men only). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among obese or smoking men than non-obese or non-smoking men. In conclusion, although a small beneficial effect of vegetables, especially green leafy and cruciferous vegetables, cannot be excluded, vegetable and fruit intake may not be appreciably associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes for Japanese adults.
We investigated the relationship between the intake of fish and the risk of death from prostate cancer.
Data were derived from a prospective cohort study in Japan. Fish consumption obtained from a baseline questionnaire was classified into the two categories of ‘low intake’ and ‘high intake’. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals.
Data for 5589 men aged 30–79 years were analysed.
A total of twenty-one prostate cancer deaths were observed during 75 072 person-years of follow-up. Mean age at baseline study of these twenty-one subjects was 67·7 years, ranging from 47 and 79 years old. Results showed a consistent inverse association of this cancer between the high v. low intake groups. The multivariate model adjusted for potential confounding factors and some other food items showed a HR of 0·12 (95 % CI 0·05, 0·32) for the high intake group of fish consumption.
These results support the hypothesis that a high intake of fish may decrease the risk of prostate cancer death. Given the paucity of studies examining the association between prostate cancer and fish consumption, particularly in Asian populations, these findings require confirmation in additional cohort studies.
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