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In this article, we investigate the chronology of a large parallel-walled mudbrick structure at the site of Pachamta in Rajasthan, India. Pachamta is larger than the contemporaneous Harappan site of Kalibangan and part of a society collectively known as the Ahar Culture. Recent excavations at Pachamta provided an opportunity to elaborate on the available dates for this society and to investigate the chronology of an enigmatic parallel-walled structure. The chronology and function of such prominent structures remains murky, although scholars have suggested that these buildings served as public storage because they resemble the granary at Harappa. Through excavation, our team collected data for assessing the Pachamta parallel-walled structure including construction methods, process of abandonment, and associated dates. The thirteen 14C assays from the site and an associated phase and sequence model performed in OxCal 4.3 demonstrate that the building was constructed, used, and abandoned in a relatively brief period. If parallel-walled structures are storage buildings, then expansion of the building may indicate prosperity or surplus, while abandonment may indicate an end to abundance or a shift in resource management. Carefully dating the structure allows us to investigate the timing of social processes including political and economic shifts within the settlement.
To evaluate associations of demographic and socio-economic factors with diet quality among population subgroups in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H).
A cross-sectional analysis of 2017 B&H dietary survey data. Diet quality was assessed by the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) utilizing data from two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls. Socio-economic variables were extracted from the 2015 B&H Household Budget Survey. Homogeneity of means across population subgroups was evaluated using multivariable regression.
B&H population survey.
A population-based sample of 853 adults.
The mean PDQS was 15·8 (range 7–28 out of a possible 42 points). In general, Bosnian adults had low PDQS due to high intakes of refined grains, high-fat dairy and processed meats, and low intakes of whole grains, nuts and fish. The PDQS was significantly higher (P < 0·0001) among older individuals (17·0) compared with those in the youngest group (14·5), among individuals living in the central and northern regions (16·5) compared with those living in the south (15·1; P < 0·0001), and among people who are married/cohabitating (16·1) v. single (14·8; P = 0·02). In energy-adjusted models, socio-economic status (P = 0·04) and tertiles of household spending (P = 0·002) were inversely associated with the PDQS.
Diet quality in this population was low. Young and middle-aged individuals, singles and those living in the south had significantly lower quality diets compared with other subgroups. Public health action is needed to promote higher consumption of whole grains, nuts and fish, and a higher variety of fruits and vegetables.
Sleep disturbance is a symptom of and a well-known risk factor for depression. Further, atypical functioning of the HPA axis has been linked to the pathogenesis of depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of adolescent HPA axis functioning in the link between adolescent sleep problems and later depressive symptoms. Methods: A sample of 157 17–18 year old adolescents (61.8% female) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and provided salivary cortisol samples throughout the day for three consecutive days. Two years later, adolescents reported their depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results: Individuals (age 17–18) with greater sleep disturbance reported greater depressive symptoms two years later (age 19–20). This association occurred through the indirect effect of sleep disturbance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (indirect effect = 0.14, 95%CI [.02 -.39]). Conclusions: One pathway through which sleep problems may lead to depressive symptoms is by up-regulating components of the body’s physiological stress response system that can be measured through the cortisol awakening response. Behavioral interventions that target sleep disturbance in adolescents may mitigate this neurobiological pathway to depression during this high-risk developmental phase.
Previous models suggest biological and behavioral continua among healthy individuals (HC), at-risk condition, and full-blown schizophrenia (SCZ). Part of these continua may be captured by schizotypy, which shares subclinical traits and biological phenotypes with SCZ, including thalamic structural abnormalities. In this regard, previous findings have suggested that multivariate volumetric patterns of individual thalamic nuclei discriminate HC from SCZ. These results were obtained using machine learning, which allows case–control classification at the single-subject level. However, machine learning accuracy is usually unsatisfactory possibly due to phenotype heterogeneity. Indeed, a source of misclassification may be related to thalamic structural characteristics of those HC with high schizotypy, which may resemble structural abnormalities of SCZ. We hypothesized that thalamic structural heterogeneity is related to schizotypy, such that high schizotypal burden would implicate misclassification of those HC whose thalamic patterns resemble SCZ abnormalities.
Following a previous report, we used Random Forests to predict diagnosis in a case–control sample (SCZ = 131, HC = 255) based on thalamic nuclei gray matter volumes estimates. Then, we investigated whether the likelihood to be classified as SCZ (π-SCZ) was associated with schizotypy in 174 HC, evaluated with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire.
Prediction accuracy was 72.5%. Misclassified HC had higher positive schizotypy scores, which were correlated with π-SCZ. Results were specific to thalamic rather than whole-brain structural features.
These findings strengthen the relevance of thalamic structural abnormalities to SCZ and suggest that multivariate thalamic patterns are correlates of the continuum between schizotypy in HC and the full-blown disease.
Hala Sultan Tekke is a large Bronze Age city located on the southeastern littoral of Cyprus. The city flourished from approximately 1650 BC to 1150 BC according to the archaeological evidence. Since 2010, Swedish excavations have exposed four new city quarters (CQ1–4) with three occupational phases, the 14C dating of which is of highest importance also for other contemporaneous cultures. The finds demonstrate vast intercultural connections in the Mediterranean and even with southern Scandinavia. In 2014, roughly 500 m to the east of CQ1, one of the richest cemeteries on the island was discovered. According to the archaeological evidence, the finds from the city date mainly to the 13th and 12th centuries BC. However, many of the wealthy tombs and the offering pits from the cemetery are considerably older with the oldest finds dating to the 16th century BC. This raises the question where the city quarters belonging to the oldest finds from the cemetery are situated. The radiocarbon (14C) dates from Hala Sultan Tekke have much influence on the dating of related sites because of numerous imports from a vast area. We present here new 14C data obtained in the course of the current excavations, which add to sets of already existing data.
Extra-care housing (ECH) has been hailed as a potential solution to some of the problems associated with traditional forms of social care, since it allows older people to live independently, while also having access to care and support if required. However, little longitudinal research has focused on the experiences of residents living in ECH, particularly in recent years. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of four ECH schemes in the United Kingdom. Older residents living in ECH were interviewed four times over a two-year period to examine how changes in their care needs were encountered and negotiated by care workers, managers and residents themselves. This paper focuses on how residents managed their own changing care needs within the context of ECH. Drawing upon theories of the third and fourth age, the paper makes two arguments. First, that transitions across the boundary between the third and fourth age are not always straightforward or irreversible and, moreover, can sometimes be resisted, planned-for and managed by older people. Second, that operational practices within ECH schemes can function to facilitate or impede residents’ attempts to manage this boundary.
Forty years ago there were approximately fifty child speakers of Hawaiian in the state of Hawai‘i. Today there are thousands of speakers of all ages and a constellation of pre-K–PhD programs to promote the Hawaiian language and culture. In the early 1990s, there were no living speakers of myaamia (Miami) or Wôpanâak (Wampanoag), both North American Algonquian languages. Today, these languages, once decreed “extinct,” live in vibrant community-based education programs and family homes. Drawing on an international scholarly literature and the author’s long-term collaborative research with Indigenous educators, this chapter reflects backward and forward on the field of Indigenous language reclamation, tracing its development against the violence of settler colonialism and exploring current movements, their challenges, and the language planning and policymaking possibilities they suggest. In an age of growing raciolinguistic inequality, these movements provide both a cautionary tale and a vision of the interventions necessary to support Indigenous self-determination and sustain linguistic diversity for all.
Neural electrodes have been widely used to monitor neural signals and/or deliver electrical stimulation in the brain. Currently, biodegradable and biocompatible materials have been actively investigated to create temporary electrodes that could degrade after serving their functions for neural recording and stimulation from days to months. The new class of biodegradable electrodes eliminate the necessity of secondary surgery for electrode removal. In this study, we created biodegradable, biocompatible, and implantable magnesium (Mg)-based microelectrodes for in vivo neural recording for the first time. Specifically, conductive poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) was first deposited onto Mg microwire substrates by electrochemical deposition, and a biodegradable insulating polymer was subsequently sprayed onto the surface of electrodes. The tip of electrodes was designed to be conductive for neural recording and stimulation, while the rest of electrodes was insulated with a polymer that is biocompatible with neural tissue. The impedance of Mg-based microelectrodes and their performance during neural recording in the auditory cortex of a mouse were studied. The results first demonstrated the capability of Mg-based microelectrodes for in vivo recording of multi-unit stimulus-evoked activity in the brain.
This study aims to investigate the influence of work experience variables on the emotional state of worker-caregivers based on stress process model. The emotional state (depression, negative and positive affect and worry-strain), caregiver and care recipient features, caregiving stressors and appraisal, and role strains/work-related variables were assessed in 83 worker-caregivers of elderly dependent relatives. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed for each of the four emotional outcome variables. Caregiving overload and positive job experience were the best predictors of depression and positive affect. The predictors of negative affect were reaction to memory and behavior problems, overload and role captivity. The predictors of worry and strain were daily hours of caregiving worries, reaction to memory and behavior problems, overload, role captivity and job-caregiving conflicts. The explained variances for the four models were 58.8%, 40.2%, 62.9% and 78.8%, respectively; the role strain contributions were 8.2%, 13.2%, 7.2% and 6%. The results indicate that the effect of perceived job experiences on caregivers’ emotional status is more relevant than objective job conflicts. In addition, caregivers’ emotional state is primarily related to the subjective indicators of caregiving stressors, with a lower contribution of work-related variables.
A neurointerventional training model called HANNES (Hamburg ANatomical NEurointerventional Simulator) has been developed to replace animal models in catheter-based aneurysm treatment training. A methodical approach to design for mass adaptation is applied so that patient-specific aneurysm models can be designed recurrently based on real patient data to be integrated into the training system.
HANNES’ modular product structure designed for mass adaptation consists of predefined and individualized modules that can be combined for various training scenarios. Additively manufactured, individualized aneurysm models enable high reproducibility of real patient anatomies. Due to the implementation of a standardized individualization process, order-related adaptation can be realized for each new patient anatomy with modest effort. The paper proves how the application of design for mass adaptation leads to a well-designed modular product structure of the neurointerventional training model HANNES, which supports quality treatment and provides an animal-free and patient-specific training environment.
The aim of this chapter is to analyze how a specific constitutional regime dealt with an impending financial emergency. To assess the constitution’s constraining effects on the legislator’s margin of choice within an economic crisis, we will focus on the Portuguese constitutional case law that has reviewed austerity measures.1 For this purpose, we define “austerity legislation” as law that was adopted to cope with budgetary deficit reduction following the great recession and that affects individual rights and freedoms.2
We begin by briefly describing the domestic and international events that lead to the adoption of several packages of austerity and the formal financial rescue program. In section III, we go through the crisis constitutional case law. The Portuguese Constitutional Court (CC) has dealt with financial emergencies since its early days. After reviewing that initial jurisprudence, we analyze the case law on austerity which comprises not only legislation enacted before the bailout, but also the policies required by the formal program.
This paper highlights unique sites in Ladakh, India, investigated during our 2016 multidisciplinary pathfinding expedition to the region. We summarize our scientific findings and the site's potential to support science exploration, testing of new technologies and science protocols within the framework of astrobiology research. Ladakh has several accessible, diverse, pristine and extreme environments at very high altitudes (3000–5700 m above sea level). These sites include glacial passes, sand dunes, hot springs and saline lake shorelines with periglacial features. We report geological observations and environmental characteristics (of astrobiological significance) along with the development of regolith-landform maps for cold high passes. The effects of the diurnal water cycle on salt deliquescence were studied using the ExoMars Mission instrument mockup: HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature (HABIT). It recorded the existence of an interaction between the diurnal water cycle in the atmosphere and salts in the soil (which can serve as habitable liquid water reservoirs). Life detection assays were also tested to establish the best protocols for biomass measurements in brines, periglacial ice-mud and permafrost melt water environments in the Tso-Kar region. This campaign helped confirm the relevance of clays and brines as interest targets of research on Mars for biomarker preservation and life detection.
This paper investigates the California Vowel Shift, previously characterized as a chain shift, in communities across California's Central Valley. An incremental apparent time analysis of 72 Californians’ vowel spaces provides no clear evidence of a gradual chain shift; that is, changes have not unfolded in an order that reflects an implicational chain in chronological time. Instead, we see contemporaneous movements of vowels that work against the phonological tendency of maximal dispersion typically invoked in describing chain shifts. By analyzing change in the size and dispersion of the entire vowel space, we find that ongoing sound change is instead characterized by a holistic compression of the vowel space. This suggests that, in these California communities, the shift's unfolding was driven by articulatory and social, rather than purely phonological, factors. We propose that the analysis of the size and spread of holistic vowel space can help characterize the nature and motivations for vocalic changes.