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The period of 1850-1865 consists of violent struggle and crisis as the United States underwent the prodigious transition from slaveholding to ostensibly “free” nation. This volume reframes mid-century African American literature and challenges our current understandings of both African American and American literature. It presents a fluid tradition attentive to history, science, politics, economics, space and movement, the visual, and the sonic. Black writing at mid-century was highly conscious of transnational and international politics, textual circulation, and revolutionary imaginaries. Essays explore how Black literature was being produced and circulated; how and why it marked its relation to other literary and expressive traditions; what geopolitical imaginaries it facilitated; and what technologies, including print, enabled African Americans to pursue such a complex and ongoing aesthetic and political project.
Dr Daniel Gibbs is one of 50 million people worldwide with an Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Unlike most patients with Alzheimer's, however, Dr Gibbs worked as a neurologist for twenty-five years, caring for patients with the very disease now affecting him. Also unusual is that Dr Gibbs had begun to suspect he had Alzheimer's several years before any official diagnosis could be made. Forewarned by genetic testing showing he carried alleles that increased the risk of developing the disease, he noticed symptoms of mild cognitive impairment long before any tests would have alerted him. In this highly personal account, Dr Gibbs documents the effect his diagnosis has had on his life and explains his advocacy for improving early recognition of Alzheimer's. Weaving clinical knowledge from decades caring for dementia patients with his personal experience of the disease, this is an optimistic tale of one man's journey with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
Arbitration enjoys a long tradition in Spain.2 It has been consistently recognized by and promoted throughout historical laws3 as an alternative method for dispute resolution. The recognition of arbitration in legal texts can be traced to Spanish medieval law.4Breviario de Alarico, or Lex Romana Visigothorum,5 promulgated on February 2, 506, and Liber Iudiciorum,6 among others, acknowledged that the value of arbitration was definitively enshrined in the fundamental Siete Partidas.7 Since then, a series of famous arbitral awards – Compromiso de Caspe 1321 and 1363 (the Covenant of Caspe), Sentencia Arbitral de Guadalupe 1486 (the Arbitral Award of Guadalupe) – and regal laws in Castile fostered the institution by ordering the enforcement of commitments agreed by the parties (Ordenanza de Madrid of 1502). These legal and arbitral decisions paved the way to the incorporation of the institution of arbitration into the Novísima Recopilación (1804).8 The resort to arbitration for solving disputes among merchants and guilds, as a response to their aversion to ordinary courts, gave a lot of impetus to arbitration during that period.
To what do we ascribe the far-reaching success of companies from emerging economies in domestic and global markets? What do emerging markets companies do differently? This chapter studies and provides a comparison of the cases of seven successful Colombian companies in different industries to identify specific attributes and capabilities that have helped these firms to overcome the liabilities associated with being situated in emerging markets, enabling them to become market leaders domestically or internationally. The findings of this study suggest that the most relevant capabilities for the success of these companies are their ability to obtain resources, their product adaptation capabilities, and their understanding of local consumers’ needs.
This chapter examines the path from the origins of the United Nations and its Charter to the 2030 Global Agenda on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and charts the interconnectedness of fundamental concepts that underpin the human rights movement to today’s implementation of the SDGs. Specifically, we explore how the twentieth-century origins of the United Nations transformed into twenty-first-century platforms of action and advocacy through support from psychological research. Early concepts provided by key historical figures are linked to the evolution of those concepts to form the current global agenda. For example, how do the basic pillars of the UN system form a conceptual foundation for planning and advocating for human rights? The chapter illustrates the inter-relatedness of these foundations and presents perspectives to create support for successful implementation through the value of psychological science to facilitate behavior change in formal educational settings, in community settings, and with technology. We address ways in which informing civil society plays a vital role in achieving success in addition to financial support from Member States. Finally, the chapter describes how the education of citizens globally is essential to the implementation of the SDGs and presents the promise of psychological research to potentiate the effectiveness of educational models.
Our purpose was to determine the intensive care units’ (ICUs) medical staff surge capacity during the Covid-19 outbreak in spring 2020 in Spain. Methods: a multicenter retrospective survey addressing the medical specialties present in the ICUs and the increase in bed capacity during this period. Results: Sixty-seven centers (62.04%) answered the questionnaire. The ICU bed capacity during the pandemic outbreak increased by 160% (95%CI 128.97-191.03%). The average number of beds per intensive care medicine (ICM) specialist was 1.5 ± 0.60 and 3.71 ± 2.44 beds/specialist before and during the Covid-19 outbreak, respectively. Non-ICM specialists and residents were present in 50 (74.63%) and 23 (34.3%) ICUs during the outbreak, respectively. The number of physicians (ICM and non-ICM residents and specialists) in the ICU increased by 89.40% (95%CI 64.26 -114.53%). The increase in ICM specialists was, however, of 4.94% (95%CI -1.35 - 11.23%) Most non-ICM physicians were anesthetists, followed by pediatricians and cardiologists. Conclusion: The majority of ICUs in our study were able to rapidly expand critical care capacity by adapting areas outside of the normal ICU to manage critically ill patients, and by extending the critical care staff with noncritical care physicians working as force multipliers.
The low-temperature synthesis of bricks prepared from high-siliceous clays by the method of plastic molding of blanks was used. For the preparation of brick blanks, binary and ternary mixtures of high-siliceous clays, black sand, and bottle glass cullet were used. Gray-black low-porosity and high-porosity ceramics was obtained by sintering under conditions of oxygen deficiency. It has been established that to initiate plastic in mixtures containing high-siliceous clay, it is necessary to add montmorillonite/bentonite additives, carry out low-temperature sintering, and introduce low-melting glass additives with a melting point ranging from 750 to 800 °C. The performed investigations have shown that the sintering of mixtures with a total content of iron oxide of about 5 wt% under reducing conditions at Tsint. = 800°C for 8 h leads to the formation of glass ceramics consisting of quartz, feldspars, and a phase. The main sources of the appearance of a dark color is the formation of [Fe3+O4]4- and [Fe3+O6]9- anions in the composition of the glass phase and feldspars. By changing the contents of clay, sand, and glass in sintering, it is possible to obtain two types of ceramic materials: (a) in the form of building bricks and (b) in the form of porous fillers.
Once considered rare, archaeological examples of violence in prehistoric Europe have accumulated over recent decades, with new discoveries providing evidence of large-scale, organised warfare among pre- and protohistoric populations. One example is La Hoya in north-central Iberia. Between the mid fourth and late third centuries BC, the site was subjected to a violent attack, its inhabitants killed and the settlement burned. Here the authors present osteological analyses for a massacre: decapitations, amputations and other sharp-force injuries affecting a wide cross section of the community. They interpret the massacre as an instance of conflict between rival local communities, contributing to a growing picture of the scale and nature of violence in Iron Age Europe.
To explore the association between behavioural characteristics with the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among a population of Southern Brazilian shift working women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. AO was estimated using waist circumference (WC), and it was used to classify women as having AO (WC ≥ 88 cm). Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance.
A large plastic utensils company in Southern Brazil.
450 female shift workers.
The prevalence of the AO in the women shift workers was 44·5 % (95 % CI 40·0, 49·2 %). In night shift workers, the prevalence of AO was 56·1 % compared with 40·9 % among hybrid shift workers. After adjustments for covariates, women who were current smokers had a decrease in the prevalence of AO compared with those who never smoked. Women who had three or fewer meals per day had a 46 % increase in the AO prevalence compared with those eating more frequent meals. Night shift work was associated with increase in AO prevalence compared with hybrid shift (PR 1·33; 95 % CI: 1·08, 1·64).
Our findings indicate that behavioural characteristics are associated with a high prevalence of AO in female shift workers, thus suggesting that behavioural modifications among women working shifts, such as increase in meal frequency and physical activity, may reduce AO.
Numerous investigations have documented that age-related changes in the integrity of the corpus callosum are associated with age-related decline in the interhemispheric transfer of information. Conversely, there is accumulating evidence for more efficient white matter organization of the corpus callosum in individuals with extensive musical training. However, the relationship between making music and accuracy in interhemispheric transfer remains poorly explored.
To test the hypothesis that musicians show enhanced functional connectivity between the two hemispheres, 65 professional musicians (aged 56–90 years) and 65 age- and sex-matched non-musicians performed the fingertip cross-localization test. In this task, subjects must respond to a tactile stimulus presented to one hand using the ipsilateral (intra-hemispheric test) or contralateral (inter-hemispheric test) hand. Because the transfer of information from one hemisphere to another may imply a loss of accuracy, the value of the difference between the intrahemispheric and interhemispheric tests can be utilized as a reliable measure of the effectiveness of hemispheric interactions.
Older professional musicians show significantly greater accuracy in tactile interhemispheric transfer than non-musicians who suffer from age-related decline.
Musicians have more efficient interhemispheric communication than age-matched non-musicians. This finding is in keeping with studies showing that individuals with extensive musical training have a larger corpus callosum. The results are discussed in relation to relevant data suggesting that music positively influences aging brain plasticity.
In environmental education research (EER), love is revered as a way to heal or mend the human relationship with nature. However, this interpretation of love rests in a humanist paradigm that considers nonhuman nature as external to the human being. To this end, love has generally been considered as an outward emotion, towards nature, and is less considered an inner movement, towards the human as nature. We were interested in exploring this conceptualisation of nature and love of/as nature and question: Is there potential to locate the concept of love in EER through different theoretical positions to explore the possibilities for its (re)conceptualisation? We aim to stretch academic thinking to (re)consider love through identifying where our own research in environmental education has involved love through the intersection of our journeys at the Australian Association of Environmental Education Research Symposium workshop. In response to the context of this workshop, which explored the concept of diffraction as described by Barad, we have chosen to adopt a diffractive analysis as the methodology to analyse our theoretical perspectives of love in EER. We explore the word love in this article using diffraction to understand the relationality of human and nonhuman nature through our research interests in Steiner, ecosomaesthetics and biophilia. This process cracked our theoretical silos to more openly consider: Where is the love in EER?
Sardinella aurita has become an important source of fish protein-intake in NW African countries, where one stock is considered from Morocco to south Senegal, performing seasonal reproductive migrations along the coast. Although data are limited for the fisheries involved and for life-history knowledge of the species in the area, a precautionary approach is recommended to avoid overexploitation. Commercial landings of round sardinella produced by the European freezer-pelagic trawlers operating in Mauritanian waters were analysed between May 2004 and February 2012. The length-weight relationships (LWRs) (N = 40,725) did not show significant differences between sexes. Ripening round sardinellas were present throughout the year, but spawning effort rose between June and December. The length at first maturity for males and females was estimated at 27.7 cm TL (2.1 years) and 28.1 cm TL (2.2 years), respectively. Ages were interpreted from otoliths, varying from 0 to 8 years. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters resulted in non-statistically significant differences between sexes (P = 0.28). Natural mortality was estimated at ~0.63 year–1. The results provide important biological information for fisheries assessment of a species that plays an important key role in the current climate change scenario and for the economies of the riparian countries.
Limiting SFA intake may minimise the risk of CHD. However, such reduction often leads to increased intake of carbohydrates. We aimed to evaluate associations and the interplay of carbohydrate and SFA intake on CHD risk.
Prospective cohort study.
We followed participants in the Hordaland Health Study, Norway from 1997–1999 through 2009. Information on carbohydrate and SFA intake was obtained from a FFQ and analysed as continuous and categorical (quartiles) variables. Multivariable Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Theoretical substitution analyses modelled the substitution of carbohydrates with other nutrients. CHD was defined as fatal or non-fatal CHD (ICD9 codes 410–414 and ICD10 codes I20–I25).
2995 men and women, aged 46–49 years.
Adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity and smoking, SFA was associated with lower risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·44, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·76, Ptrend = 0·002). For carbohydrates, the opposite pattern was observed (HRQ4 v. Q1 2·10, 95 % CI 1·22, 3·63, Ptrend = 0·003). SFA from cheese was associated with lower CHD risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·44, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·83, Ptrend = 0·006), while there were no associations between SFA from other food items and CHD. A 5 E% substitution of carbohydrates with total fat, but not SFA, was associated with lower CHD risk (HR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·62, 0·90).
Higher intake of predominantly high glycaemic carbohydrates and lower intake of SFA, specifically lower intake from cheese, were associated with higher CHD risk. Substituting carbohydrates with total fat, but not SFA, was associated with significantly lower risk of CHD.
Pelagic seabird populations have declined strongly worldwide. In the North Atlantic there was a huge reduction in seabird populations following the European colonization of the Azores, Madeira and Canary archipelagos but information on seabird status and distribution for the subtropical region of Cabo Verde is scarce, unavailable or dispersed in grey literature. We compiled and compared the historical and current distribution of all seabird species breeding in the Cabo Verde archipelago, updated their relative abundance, investigated their inland habitat preferences, and reviewed their threats. Currently, the breeding seabird community in Cabo Verde is composed of Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina aedesorum, Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe, Cape Verde Petrel Pterodroma feae, Boyd's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri boydi, Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, and Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus. One breeding species is currently extinct, the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. The relative abundance of Cape Verde Shearwater, Boyd’s Shearwater, Cape Verde Petrel, and Cape Verde Storm-petrel was determined from counts of their nocturnal calls in Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso and São Nicolau. Cape Verde Petrel occurred only on mountainous islands (Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Santiago, and Fogo) from mid-to high elevations. Larger species such as the Cape Verde Shearwater and Boyd’s Shearwater exhibited a wider distribution in the archipelago, occurring close to the coastline but at lower densities on populated islands. Small procellariforms such as the Cape Verde Storm-petrel occurred at high densities only on rat-free islets and in steep areas of main islands where introduced cats and rats are unlikely to occur. The main threats to seabird populations in Cabo Verde range from predation by introduced predators, habitat alteration or destruction, and some residual human persecution.
In a global society experiencing an increasing shortage of qualified workers and the recognition that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be effective employees, there is an uptick in private sector initiatives to address employment needs through the recruitment of workers with ASD. A case study methodology with consensual qualitative research analysis was used to gain a rich understanding of employment of people with ASD at a medium-sized clothier in collaboration with a service provider for people with ASD. Perceptions of implementation and effectiveness were collected. Results suggest the hiring of people with ASD was positively perceived by employees. Components of this success included changes to the physical work environment, diversity training specific to individuals with disabilities, and a company climate of engaging and supporting employees with ASD. This research suggests that the collaborative initiative may prove a meaningful model for other companies interested in employing people with ASD.
Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples.
This study advances the Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30–91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided.
From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8–10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex.
Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.
In this paper a rare case of a double swordfish mortal attack against an adult blue shark (Prionace glauca) is reported. A female blue shark, with a total length of 3 m, was found stranded along the southern Sicilian coast (Strait of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea) on 30 May 2018. The analysis of this carcass revealed the presence of two swordfish bill fragments, impaled in the shark head; the former on the snout, the latter near the eye. The results of anatomical and computed tomography scanning analysis on the head of the blue shark showed that the larger bill fragment (19.7 cm) probably determined the death of this animal, having been impaled in a vital point, just behind the right eye. The analysis of both these events and other similar swordfish-shark interactions reported in the literature makes possible the hypothesis that young swordfish specimens put in place a precise defensive strategy against their potential predators or competitors, aimed at hitting vulnerable and vital points and delivering a mortal blow.
Evidence on how gender intersects with relevant social constructs in later phases of life is scarce. This investigation examined gender inequalities in perceived health status (self-perceived general health; SPGH) by Portuguese elderly community-dwellers while considering psycho-social and socio-demographic determinants. This study used data from a representative sample of community-dwellers aged ≥65 years (N = 920), who were enrolled in the Portuguese Elderly Nutritional Status Surveillance System (PEN-3S) project. Associations between SPGH and socio-demographic and psycho-social variables, functionality and self-reported morbidity were tested; indirect effects of relevant predictors on SPGH were also tested using a bootstrap method. Gender inequalities in health were found: women significantly rated their health worse than men; overall, participants rated their health as fair. Education, functional status, depression symptoms and self-reported morbidity significantly predicted SPGH among women, whereas only the latter two were associated with SPGH among men. For both genders, depression was the strongest predictor of SPGH. Mediation analyses detected indirect effects of cognitive function and loneliness feelings on SPGH among older adults. Results herein provide insights on the predictive role of psycho-social variables on SPGH and support the need for considering the context when addressing the correlates of SPGH among Portuguese older adults. Altogether, these findings might support cost-effective interventions targeting the most vulnerable groups of the population to inequalities in health and its predictors.
Children adopted internationally experience adverse conditions prior to adoption, placing them at risk for problematic social–emotional development. The Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) intervention was designed to help internationally adoptive parents behave in ways that promote young children's social–emotional competence. Participants included 131 parent–child dyads randomly assigned to receive either ABC (n = 65) or a control intervention (n = 66). In addition, 48 low-risk biologically related parent–child dyads were included as a comparison group. At follow-up assessments conducted when children were 24 to 36 months old, internationally adopted children who received the ABC intervention had higher levels of parent-reported social–emotional competence than children who received a control intervention. In addition, observational assessments conducted when children were 48 and 60 months of age showed that internationally adopted children who received ABC demonstrated higher social–emotional competence than children who received a control intervention. Adopted children who received the control intervention, but not the ABC intervention, displayed more difficulties with social–emotional competence than low-risk children. Finally, postintervention parent sensitivity mediated the effect of ABC on observed child social–emotional competence in parent interactions, controlling for preintervention parent sensitivity. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a parenting-focused intervention in enhancing social–emotional competence among children adopted internationally.
In animal models, exposure to excess testosterone during gestation induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like reproductive and metabolic traits in female offspring, suggesting that the hyperandrogenemic intrauterine environment may have a role in the etiology of PCOS. Additionally, few studies have also addressed metabolic and reproductive outcomes in male offspring. In the present study, the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IGTT) was used to assess the insulin–glucose homeostasis at various ages during sexual development in male sheep born to testosterone-treated ewes. To further analyze the programming effect of testosterone on insulin–glucose homeostasis, indexes of insulin sensitivity were assessed in orchidectomized post-pubertal males born to testosterone-treated ewes (Torq-males) and orchidectomized post-puberal controls (Corq-males) before and 48 h after a testosterone injection. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity indexes between males born to testosterone-treated ewes (T-males) and control males born to control ewes (C-males) at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age, representing the infantile, early and late pre-pubertal, and early post-pubertal stage of sexual development, respectively. In orchidectomized males, basal levels of insulin and glucose were not different between both groups before and after the testosterone injection; however, Torq-males released more insulin before and after T challenge during the first 20 min of the test. Despite this, plasma glucose concentrations were not different in both groups during IVGTT, resulting in an insulin sensitivity index composite similar between groups. We concluded that the effect of prenatal exposure to excess testosterone may reprogram the pancreatic β-cells insulin release in ovine males, with effects more evident in castrated males versus intact males.