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To explore the relationship between work-related stress and obesity among female shift workers. Additionally, we also aimed to test the interaction between shift work and work-related stress in this association.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among Brazilian female shift workers. Work-related stress was assessed through a demand–control questionnaire (Job Stress Scale). Work-related stress was defined by the presence of high psychological demands and low control at work. The obesity cases were defined as those with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used to obtain the prevalence ratios (PR) and their respective 95 % CI.
A group of industries located in southern Brazil in 2017.
Four hundred and twenty female workers aged 18–59 years.
The overall prevalence of obesity was 30 % (95 % CI: 25·6, 34·4), and the presence of work-related stress was identified in 24 % (95 % CI: 19·9, 28·1) of the sample. We found an indication of interaction between work-related stress and night shift work on obesity (P = 0·026). After adjusting for confounding factors, work-related stress was associated with a 71 % greater probability of obesity (PR = 1·71; 95 % CI: 1·02, 2·87; P = 0·042) among female night shift workers.
In this study, we revealed that exposure to work-related stress and night shift work were associated with obesity among female shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of obesity was high among female shift workers.
To explore the association between behavioural characteristics with the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among a population of Southern Brazilian shift working women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. AO was estimated using waist circumference (WC), and it was used to classify women as having AO (WC ≥ 88 cm). Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance.
A large plastic utensils company in Southern Brazil.
450 female shift workers.
The prevalence of the AO in the women shift workers was 44·5 % (95 % CI 40·0, 49·2 %). In night shift workers, the prevalence of AO was 56·1 % compared with 40·9 % among hybrid shift workers. After adjustments for covariates, women who were current smokers had a decrease in the prevalence of AO compared with those who never smoked. Women who had three or fewer meals per day had a 46 % increase in the AO prevalence compared with those eating more frequent meals. Night shift work was associated with increase in AO prevalence compared with hybrid shift (PR 1·33; 95 % CI: 1·08, 1·64).
Our findings indicate that behavioural characteristics are associated with a high prevalence of AO in female shift workers, thus suggesting that behavioural modifications among women working shifts, such as increase in meal frequency and physical activity, may reduce AO.
In animal models, exposure to excess testosterone during gestation induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like reproductive and metabolic traits in female offspring, suggesting that the hyperandrogenemic intrauterine environment may have a role in the etiology of PCOS. Additionally, few studies have also addressed metabolic and reproductive outcomes in male offspring. In the present study, the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IGTT) was used to assess the insulin–glucose homeostasis at various ages during sexual development in male sheep born to testosterone-treated ewes. To further analyze the programming effect of testosterone on insulin–glucose homeostasis, indexes of insulin sensitivity were assessed in orchidectomized post-pubertal males born to testosterone-treated ewes (Torq-males) and orchidectomized post-puberal controls (Corq-males) before and 48 h after a testosterone injection. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity indexes between males born to testosterone-treated ewes (T-males) and control males born to control ewes (C-males) at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age, representing the infantile, early and late pre-pubertal, and early post-pubertal stage of sexual development, respectively. In orchidectomized males, basal levels of insulin and glucose were not different between both groups before and after the testosterone injection; however, Torq-males released more insulin before and after T challenge during the first 20 min of the test. Despite this, plasma glucose concentrations were not different in both groups during IVGTT, resulting in an insulin sensitivity index composite similar between groups. We concluded that the effect of prenatal exposure to excess testosterone may reprogram the pancreatic β-cells insulin release in ovine males, with effects more evident in castrated males versus intact males.
The first wave of globalization, from 1850 to 1914, is considered to be a period when global trade and investment increased at a steady pace, impacting on global economic growth. Yet that evolution was not consistent across all industries. This article explains why, during that period, global trade in wines and other alcoholic beverages was reversed. Apart from diseases that affected vineyards in the main wine-producing countries of the Old World, various factors in the New World—including local government incentives and the presence of consumers (immigrants) with acquired habits of consumption from European countries—created strong incentives for the imitation and adulteration of wines. This study looks at the strategies used both by the imitators in expanding their businesses and by the innovators to survive in institutional environments that were weak with regard to the protection of their intellectual property.
Collision with power lines is a major cause of mortality for many bird species. Understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that increase collision risk is therefore important for implementing mitigation measures to minimize mortality, such as power line rerouting or wire marking. Here, we used collision events registered during 2003–2015 along 280 km of transmission power lines in southern Portugal to analyse spatio-temporal patterns and collision risk factors in two sympatric, threatened, and collision-prone species: the great bustard Otis tarda and the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. The occurrence of collisions was not uniform across space and time, and variations could be explained by the species' ecological requirements, distribution patterns and behaviour. Although both species fly considerable distances between areas of suitable habitat, collisions were far more likely in power line sections with > 20% (for the little bustard) or > 50% (for the great bustard) of open farmland habitat in the surroundings. Power line configuration was also important: taller pylons and those with a higher number of wire levels posed a higher risk for both species. Wire marking had a small but significant effect for the little bustard, reducing collisions risk. There was, however, no similar effect for the great bustard, possibly a result of limited data. Mitigation measures should be implemented to prevent bustard collisions, including adequate route planning, ideally avoiding areas with > 20% of open habitat. Line configuration and wire marking are particularly important where such localities cannot be avoided and power lines cross areas with a high proportion of bustard habitat, including outside protected areas.
Explanations of why firms exist and evolve and how intellectual property—including trademarks—contributes to their growth, survival, and impact on globalization and deglobalization have been widely studied in business history and in other fields. Drawing on the study of firms with multinational activity, this article argues that ownership of strong brands can have multiple impacts on the nature of the firm, on the dynamics of industries, on processes of globalization and deglobalization, and on shifts of power and wealth. In the process of doing so, this paper also argues that business history has great potential to have an impact beyond the field, serving as a “hub” for dialogue between disciplines. To achieve that, business historians need to remain truthful to their core competences, which include conducting well-grounded archival-based research, taking into account the uniqueness of the firm and the complexity of the environment, and conducting research that is comparative and international. This article is based my presidential address presented at the Business History Conference on March 16, 2019, in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Traditional knowledge gained through daily interactions with the environment can yield insights into processes at temporal or spatial scales that may be overlooked by conventional scientific research. Ninety interviews were conducted with riverine people in the vicinity of Anavilhanas National Park, Tapajós–Arapiuns Extractive Reserve and Tapajós National Forest in the Brazilian Amazon, with the aim to increase knowledge of the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis and evaluate its conservation status in contrasting protected areas. In Anavilhanas respondents identified 31 plant species consumed by the manatee, of which vines had the highest cognitive salience index value (the summed importance of each plant species), even though they are available to manatees only during the high-water season. In the Tapajós region 37 plant species were identified, with submerged species with floating leaves being the main component of the manatee's diet. Although hunting has declined it still occurs in Anavilhanas, which is susceptible to environmental crimes because of its proximity to urban centres. Manatee hunting seems to be infrequent in the Tapajós region, having little impact on the population. Given the broad knowledge within the local community about the Amazonian manatee, involvement of riverine people in manatee conservation activities is fundamental for reducing threats and increasing conservation effectiveness.
AK Sco is an SB2 system formed by two nearly identical Herbig Ae stars, with Teff = 6500K and log g = 4.5, surrounded by a circumbinary disk. This actively accreting system is of special interest among the pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess and the high eccentricity of its orbit. Moreover, recent spectropolarimetric observations using HARPSpol indicate the presence of a weak magnetic field in the secondary component (Järvinen et al. 2018). An abundance analysis of both components has shown that all elements have a solar abundance in the two stars, except for Li and Ba. These elements are enhanced by 2.2 and 0.5 dex, respectively, in the A component and by 2.4 and 0.5 dex, respectively, in the B component.
One idea for the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars suggests that the magnetic field is the fossil remnant of the Galactic ISM magnetic field, amplified during the collapse of the magnetised gas cloud. A search for the presence of magnetic fields in massive stars located in active sites of star formation led to the detection of rather strong magnetic fields in a few young stars. Future spectropolarimetric observations are urgently needed to obtain insights into the mechanisms that drive the generation of kG magnetic fields during high-mass star formation.
The two Sotalia species (the marine S. guianensis and the freshwater S. fluviatilis) have only recently been recognized, and both face several conservation challenges. We investigated the existence of hybridization between the two species in their possible area of sympatry in the Amazon Estuary, in northern Brazil. A fast and cheap PCR-RFLP diagnostic method using nuclear DNA was developed to discriminate between the two species, while allowing the detection of hybrids. All samples that could be identified (N = 51) were identified as S. guianensis, and no hybrids were detected. Our results, coupled with previous mitochondrial data, suggest that S. fluviatilis is not present in the Amazon delta. Thus, sympatry with S. guianensis, if it does occur, may be restricted to upstream areas of the Amazon River.
This work explores the combination of µ-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) for the study of the glazes in 15th–16th century Hispano-Moresque architectural tiles. These are high lead glazes that can be tin-opacified or transparent, and present five colors: tin-white, cobalt-blue, copper-green, iron-amber, and manganese-brown. They are generally homogenous and mineral inclusions are mostly concentrated in the glaze-ceramic interface. Through SEM-EDS, these inclusions were observed and chemically analyzed, whereas µ-Raman allowed their identification on a molecular level. K-feldspars, wollastonite and diopside were the most common compounds, as well as cassiterite agglomerates that render the glaze opaque. Malayaite was identified in green glazes, and andradite and magnesioferrite in amber glazes. Co–Ni–ferrites were identified in blue glazes, as well as Ni–Fe–olivines. Manganese-brown is the color where most compounds were identified: bustamite, jacobsite, hausmannite, braunite, and kentrolite. Through the µ-Raman analysis of different areas in large inclusions previously observed by SEM, it was possible to identify intermediate phases that illustrate the reaction process that occurs between the color-conferring compounds and the surrounding lead glaze. Furthermore, the obtained results allowed inference of the raw materials and firing temperatures used on the manufacture of these tiles.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
A better understanding of emotion regulation (ER) within daily life is a growing focus of research. This study evaluated the average use of two ER strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and concurrent and lagged relationships between these two ER strategies and affect (positive and negative affect) in the daily lives of adolescents. We also investigated the role of the same strategies at the trait level on these within-person relationships. Thirty-three adolescents provided 1,258 reports of their daily life by using the Experience Sampling Method for one week. Regarding the relative use of ER strategies, cognitive reappraisal (M = 2.87, SD = 1.58) was used more often than expressive suppression (M = 2.42, SD = 1.21). While the use of both strategies was positively correlated when evaluated in daily life (p = .01), the same did not occur at the trait level (p = .37). Multilevel analysis found that ER strategies were concurrently related to affect (p < .01), with the exception of cognitive reappraisal-positive affect relationship (p = .11). However, cognitive reappraisal predicted higher positive affect at the subsequent sampling moment ( β = 0.07, p = .03). The concurrent associations between cognitive reappraisal and negative affect vary as function of the use of this strategy at the trait level (β = 0.05, p = .02). Our findings highlighted the complex associations between daily ER strategies and affect of a normative sample of adolescents.
Background: The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. Aims: Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias. Method: Participants with high vs low social anxiety and different personality structures viewed pairs of faces (free-viewing eye-tracking task) representing different emotions (anger, happiness and neutrality). Their eye movements were registered and analysed for both whole-trial (static) and time-dependent (dynamic) measures. Results: Comparisons between participants with high and low social anxiety levels did not yield evidence of differences in eye-tracking measures for the whole trial (latency of first fixation, first fixation direction, total dwell time), but the two groups differed in the time course of overt attention during the trial (dwell time across three successive time segments): participants with high social anxiety were slower in disengaging their attention from happy faces. Similar results were obtained using a full-sample, regression-based analysis. Conclusion: Our results speak in favour of a maintenance bias in social anxiety. Preliminary results indicated that personality structure may not affect the maintenance (dynamic) bias of socially anxious individuals, although depressive personality structures may favour manifestations of a (static) hypervigilance bias.
The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes.
PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist.
A systematic review of the literature.
Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe.
Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake.
There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.
In the frame of the COST ACTION ‘EMBOS’ (Development and implementation of a pan-European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System), coverage of intertidal macroalgae was estimated at a range of marine stations along the European coastline (Subarctic, Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean). Based on these data, we tested whether patterns in macroalgal diversity and distribution along European intertidal rocky shores could be explained by a set of meteo-oceanographic variables. The variables considered were salinity, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, significant wave height and tidal range and were compiled from three different sources: remote sensing, reanalysis technique and in situ measurement. These variables were parameterized to represent average conditions (mean values), variability (standard deviation) and extreme events (minimum and maximum values). The results obtained in this study contribute to reinforce the EMBOS network approach and highlight the necessity of considering meteo-oceanographic variables in long-term assessments. The broad spatial distribution of pilot sites has allowed identification of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients manifested through species composition, diversity and dominance structure of intertidal macroalgae. These patterns follow a latitudinal gradient mainly explained by sea surface temperature, but also by photosynthetically active radiation, salinity and tidal range. Additionally, a longitudinal gradient was also detected and could be linked to wave height.
In this paper the characterization of a gypsum plaster sample from the end of the 19th century simulating imperial red porphyry using a multi-analytical approach is presented and discussed. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), physical and mechanical properties are summarized. In order to have further insight into the microstructure, polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and micro Raman spectroscopy analyzes were also made. They helped to clarify the main issues raised by the other complementary analytical techniques and allowed the establishment of interrelations between the different properties, providing important information about the materials, the skills, and the technological development involved in the art of imitating noble stones with gypsum pastes. This study also contributes to our knowledge concerning the preservation of these types of elements that are important in the context of European decorative arts and rarely reported in the literature.
Examining how variability in population abundance and distribution is allotted among different spatial scales can inform of processes that are likely to generate that variability. Results of studies dealing with scale issues in marine benthic communities suggest that variability is concentrated at small spatial scales (from tens of centimetres to few metres) and that spatial patterns of variation are consistent across ecosystems characterized by contrasting physical and biotic conditions, but this has not been formally tested. Here we quantified the variability in the distribution of intertidal rocky shore communities at a range of spatial scales, from tens of centimetres to thousands of kilometres, both in the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and tested whether the observed patterns differed between the two basins. We focused on canopy-forming macroalgae and associated understorey assemblages in the low intertidal, and on the distribution of Patella limpets at mid intertidal levels. Our results highlight that patterns of spatial variation, at each scale investigated, were consistent between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, suggesting that similar ecological processes operate in these regions. In contrast with former studies, variability in canopy cover, species richness and limpet abundance was equally distributed among spatial scales, possibly reflecting the fingerprint of multiple processes. Variability in community structure of low intertidal assemblages, instead, peaked at the largest scale, suggesting that oceanographic processes and climatic gradients may be important. We conclude that formal comparisons of variability across scales nested in contrasting systems are needed, before any generalization on patterns and processes can be made.
Coastal ecosystems are highly complex and driven by multiple environmental factors. To date we lack scientific evidence for the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic drivers for the majority of marine habitats in order to adequately assess the role of different stressors across the European seas. Such relationship can be investigated by analysing the correlation between environmental variables and biotic patterns in multivariate space and taking into account non-linearities. Within the framework of the EMBOS (European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System) programme, hard bottom intertidal communities were sampled in a standardized way across European seas. Links between key natural and anthropogenic drivers and hard bottom communities were analysed using Boosted Regression Trees modelling. The study identified strong interregional variability and showed that patterns of hard bottom macroalgal and invertebrate communities were primarily a function of tidal regime, nutrient loading and water temperature (anomalies). The strength and shape of functional form relationships varied widely however among types of organisms (understorey algae composing mostly filamentous species, canopy-forming algae or sessile invertebrates) and aggregated community variables (cover or richness). Tidal regime significantly modulated the effect of nutrient load on the cover and richness of understorey algae and sessile invertebrates. In contrast, hydroclimate was more important for canopy algae and temperature anomalies and hydroclimate separately or interactively contributed to the observed patterns. The analyses also suggested that climate-induced shifts in weather patterns may result in the loss of algal richness and thereby in the loss of functional diversity in European hard bottom intertidal areas.